Archive for the ‘Philosophy’ Category

About the Sum of Things

Thursday, September 22nd, 2011

The Lo Shu is a Chinese Model for Time and was used to design Cities, Temples, Cycles and Calendars.

lo-shu-color

The Lo Shu is a 3×3 Magic Square created by Fu Xi, the Founder of Chinese Civilization. Fu Xi lived around the time of the Great Flood.

The Magic Square was carried by a Turtle. The Turtle is the symbol of the Constellation Orion. Many Ancient Cultures claim that our Ancestors came from this constellation. The Square of Lo Shu is also referred to as the Magic Square of Saturn or Chronos (Time).

The Chinese Pollen Path

The Duality of Fu Xi and his Sister, The Snake of the Kundalini contains 3.5 (7/2) Twists. 2x3.5 = 7. 7 = (-1,-2,-3,0,1,2,3).

According to Chinese Creation Myth  the world started with 無極 (wuji: nothingness), the Tao. Out of the Tao, the Egg of the Zero (0) and the Supreme Pure One (1) emerged. In the next step the Trinity (3), the Three Pure Ones, was created.

The Tao produced One; One produced Two; Two produced Three; Three produced All things (Lao Tsu, Tao Te Ching, 42).

SriYantra

The Sri Yantra contains 43 Triangels and is generated by the Bronze Mean.

The Trinity is represented by a Triangle. A combination of Two Triangels is a Square. The combination of Two (2) Triangels is also the Symbol of the Heart Chakra, the merge of Heaven, the Upper Triangel and Earth, the Lower Triangel.

The most complex Yantra (“machine”), the Sri Yantra, contains 43 Triangels. The Sri Yantra is determinated by the Bronze Mean. The Bronze Mean is a generalization of the Sequence of Fibonacci based on the Trinity. The Bronze Mean generates Quasi-Crystals and Penrose Tilings.

The Square is a combination of two Triangels. It is represented by the Of Star of David, the Symbol of the Heart Chakra.

The Square is a combination of two Triangels. It is represented by the Star of David, the Symbol of the Heart Chakra.

The Lo Shu Magic Square not only shows the Connection between the Four Forces that came out of the Two Forces, Expansion and Compression, it also shows the connection between Heaven and Earth.

In the Magic Square of Lu Shu the Even Numbers (2,4,6,8 = 2 x (1,2,3,4 = 2×2)) are Black(Yang, Male). The Odd Numbers (1,3,5,7,9 = 3×3) are White (Yin, Female). The Sum of all the Numbers is 15 (3×5).

The Even Numbers are situated at the Corners of the Square.

When the numbers of each row are multiplied (8x1x6; 3x5x7; 4x9x2) they together total to 225 ((3×5)x(3×5)) — as do those of the columns (8x3x4; 1x5x9; 6x7x2).

The Magic Square is dominated by two numbers (2**1, 2**2, 2**3)  and (3, 2×3, 3**2), It contains four Prime Numbers (1,3,5,7). It also contains the first Perfect Number 6 (1+2+3 =1x2x3). 6 is also a Harmonic Divisor Number and has a Harmonic Divisor 2. The Sixth Day in the week is the day of Saturn, the God of Time.

The sequence 1,2,4,8, 1, 3,6,9, 27 is called the Tetrad of the Pythagorians and was, according to Plato, used by the Demiurg, the Creator of our Universe, to create the Soul. The Soul is a mixture of the Same (1), the Different (2), and Existence (3). The Tetrad was used to define the Harmony of the Spheres.

When you connect the numbers of the Lo Shu a pattern appears that is called the Seal of Saturn or the Dance of Yu.

The Seal of Saturn or the Dance of Yu

The Sum of Magic Squares is a Magic Square and the product of a Magic Square M with a number a is again a Magic Square aM. Both Rules can be used to construct a Magic Square out of simple Binary Squares called Magic Carpets. One of these Magic Carpets is the Identity Matrix with One on the Diagonal.

Every Magic Square is related by Rotation and Mirroring to Eight other Magic Squares. This means that the central Lo Shu Magic Square with the Five in the Middle is related to Eight other Magic Squares with the other Numbers in the Middle. One of them contains the Nine and is called the Well.

The Lo Shu and the Well

The Sum of numbers of the Well is 18 (2×9) and the sum of all opposites across the 8 Spoke Wheel = 9 (9+0, 8+1, 7+2, 6+3, 5+4). 2×9 means that there are Two Complementary Magic Squares. One Magic Square is Rotating with the Clock and the other Against the Clock.

The Well is an Expansion and Contraction Cycle based on Powers of 2.

The Nine is the most important Number in the Magic Square. The Nine comes back in many ancient mythologies like the Egyptian Pesedjet and the Greek Ennead.

When you add the separate numbers of a number (54 = 5+ 4 = 9) the result is the Remainder when you divide the number by 9.  This number is called the Modulo 9 number.

The Powers of 2 (= Expansion) Mod 9 creates a pattern (1,2,4,8,(16)7,(32)5,(64)1,(128)2,…). This pattern is reversed when we divide by 2 (=Compression) (1/2 (0,5 =5), 1/4 (0,25 = 7), 1/8 (0,125 =8), 1/16 (0,625 = 4), 2,1).

The Expansion and Compression Pattern shows that the same pattern repeats itself when the Magic Square is expanded or compressed Six (6) Times. The 7th Step is the Same as the First Step.

After 2**6=64 (8×8) divisons of the cell a Specialized Cell is created, the stem cell. The same happens in Music.  The Game of Chess (Chiu King in China) with its 8×8 = 64 = 2**6 Playing Board contains every possible situation of the Game of Life.

The Two-Pattern does not contain the numbers 3,6 and 9. The number 9 is repeated every time when the pattern is expanded and compressed which means that Nine is the same as the Identity, the One (1+9 = 1). 3 and 6 Oscillate (1x2x3=6 and 1+2+3 =6) and  therefore represent the Duality (3+6 = 9, = the One).

If we combine the Expansion and Compression patterns a Torus (a Rotating Circle, The Wheel of Time) appears. The Zero (the Void) is in the Center and Contains the Vortex. The Vortex represents another Cycle (Black/White Hole, 3,6,9, the Wheel of Order) in which every structure/pattern is destroyed to start All Over Again.

Lo Shu Torus

If we subtract the numbers in the Square by the number of the Center, 5, a highly Symmetric Pattern emerges. This pattern shows that there are Two Mirror Universes both containing four Forces.

When we transform this pattern from Modulus 9 to Modulus 3 (the Trinity) we see that the number 4 equals 1 and represents a new beginning of the Cycle.

4

9

2

-5

-1

4

-3

3

5

7

-5

-2

0

2

8

1

6

-5

3

-4

1

The Magic Square with the Zero in the Middle is surrounded by two Sequences of 123(4) with different Signs. The Signs are arranged in a Cyclic Pattern (- -, + -, + +, – +) that contains the Four Permutations of – and +. The Sum of the ++ and the — is -3 and +3, the Trinity. The Sum of +- en -+ is the One.

The Cyclic Pattern of + and – represents the Prisoners Dilemma that is solved by the Strategy of Tit for Tat. This strategy is applied by the Trickster, the God of Paradox, a concept of God in which God creates games that create games.

When you use the basic Addition and Multiplcation Rules of the Magic Square many important numbers and patterns  appear that are related to Ancient CalendersSymbols and Cycles.

About the Sum of Things

The Lo Shu Magic Square appeared a few years ago when I wanted to know more about Acupuncture.  Acupuncture is related to the Sheng Cycle and the Sheng Cycle is related to the Lo Shu. A Magic Square is the perfect way to visualize the Constraints that control the Four Forces in our Universe.

Soon after this discovery I found out the Lo Shu is related to the Trinity and the Bronze Mean which is an abstraction of the Fibonacci Sequence. The Bronze Mean generates the Sri Yantra and so called Quasi Crystals. Quasi Crystals explain Acupuncture.

A few weeks ago I started a discussion with Kim Veltman. Kim Veltman is the director of the Maastricht McLuhan Institute. He is researching Ancient Architecture and wrote a very interesting document called “Alphabets, Elements and Cosmologies”.

Ancient Alphabets are related to Numbers and Tones so Ancient Texts also represent Numerical Patterns and Music. You want be surprised to read that the Lo Shu showed itself in every Text Kim Veltman has analysed.

His document started a new inquiry into the pattern of the Lo Shu. During this research I detected the book “the Sum of Things” by Paul Martyn-Smith. Paul Martin-Smith worked together with Lee Burton.

This blog contains just a litte bit of the tremendous amount of information Paul Martin-Smith & Lee Burton have found about the essence of the I Tjing which is contained in just one simple 3×3 Magic Square.

If you want to know more the only thing you can do is to buy this book and start reading.

LINKS

About the Book “the Sum of Things” (Free Download)

About the I Tjing

The Calculations  behind the Number of Things

The Relationship between the Lo Shu and the I Tjing

About the Lo Shu Torus

About Saturn, the Son of the Sun

About the Trickster

How to construct Magic Squares out of Binary Squares (Magic Carpets)

The Sistine Chapel (Rome) and the Seal of Saturn

About the Relationship between the Lo Shu and Music

About the History of the Lo Shu

About the Wheel of Eternal Order and the Wheel of Time

About the Relationship between the Lo Shu and Chinese Alchemy

About the Great Flood

About the Orion Myth

About Plato, Pythagoras and the Lo Shu

About the Nothingness

About the Trinity

About the Heart Chakra

About the Sri Yantra

About the Lo Shu Magic Square and the Chinese Domino Game

About the Mirror Universe

About Acupuncture

About Tit for Tat

About the Prisoners Dilemma

About the Bronze Mean

About the Sheng Cycle

Everything You want to Know about Sacred Geometry

About the Influence of the Lo Shu on Recent Art

The Lo Shu Square with Imaginary Numbers

About Combining the Combinations

Monday, May 30th, 2011

 

steam_engine

Evolution means the creation of larger and larger islands of order at the expense of even greater seas of disorder in the world. In the process of evolution, each succeeding species is more complex and thus better equipped as a transformer of available energy.: Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy: A New World View (1980).

You wouldn’t enjoy a perfectly ordered universe. A wholly ordered universe would be at perfect equilibrium and would be dead. There can arise no Order unless there is a Flow of Matter and Energy which decreases in intensity as a system moves toward equilibrium. Motion, change or evolution in the Universe is driven by fluxes of energy and energy-rich matter flowing from sources of high potential to sinks of lower potential.

During the road from Being to Becoming Cyclic Auto-Catalytic Systems are created that Re-Create themselves until they Die. Islands of Order Appear and Disappear in the Sea of Chaos.

About Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the Science of the Transfer of Energy.

In strict Scientific terms Energy is classified into two main forms: Kinetic and Potential energy. Kinetic Energy is defined as the energy of a moving object. Potential Energy is defined as the energy in matter due to its position or the arrangement of its parts. The various forms of Potential Energy include gravitational potential energy, elastic potential energy, chemical potential energy, and electrical potential energy.

The First Law of Thermodynamics says that the total quantity of Energy in the universe remains Constant.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the quality of this energy is degraded irreversibly. The Second Law predicts that our Universe will end when the Explosive Motion of the Big Bang wil stop and we will reach the Absolute Zero.

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1790-1832) detected the Second Law of Thermodynamics when he tried to find the most efficient heating engine.

According to Carnot the Efficiency of an Engine is (T1T2)⁄T1, where T1 is the highest temparature. The Higher the Difference between the two Temperatures of the Engine the Lower the Efficiency. The Bigger the Step the Higher the Waste. If you want to build a highly efficient Engine, the Engine has to make very Small Steps when the Engine is heated.  This principle is known as Adiabatic Expansion (and Compression).

Physical, Chemical, and Electrical energy can be completely changed into Heat. But the Reverse (heat into physical energy, for example) cannot be accomplished without a loss. The irreversible increase of this nondisposable, useless, energy in the universe is measured by the abstract dimension  called Entropy (from the Greek entrope, change).

The Entropy measures the degree to which the probability of the system is spread out over different possible states. If all the possible States of the System are the Same, the System is in Equilibrium and the Entropy, the State of Order,  is on its Maximum.

In the Beginning of the Universe Every Thing was Different. In the End State Every Part of the Universe will be the Same.

About the History of Innovation

The central actor in the 19th century model of cultural innovation is the Artist, conceived, as an individual creator of works of art. Art is produced only by a handful of exceptional individuals.

The process of technical innovation in the 19th century was seen in terms similar. The central focus was on the work of individual inventors and researchers, commonly with little or no specifically scientific training.

By the early 20th century, this model was displaced by an industrialized process of innovation.

The first major step in this process was the rise of the Research University and the development of a large class of technically trained workers. In the 20th century, pure scientific research had become the preserve of universities and specialist research institutes.

The second major step was the development of corporate forms of business organization, which allowed Research and Development to become an organized business activity, operated on industrial lines.

The pattern of innovation in the 21st century is radically different. In most sectors of the economy, the rate of technological progress has slowed down substantially. Technological progress is characterised largely by Incremental Improvements to mature products.

In Computing and Telecommunications, the rate of progress has accelerated dramatically since the late 1980. The convergence of Computing and Telecommunications in the Internet has fundamentally transformed every activity it has touched. Everything that can be formalized will be formalized.

The Internet makes it possible that disjunct Networks of Isolated Innovators connect and share their Knowledge and Experience.

The Artist,  now connected with many other “exceptional individuals” all over the world,  is on its return.

About Incremental and Disruptive Industrial Innovation

There are two types of Industrial Innovation called “incremental”  and disruptive” innovation.

Japan (and now China) has made incremental improvement the cornerstone of  Technical Advancement. After months and years of gradual (adiabatic) changes, products look radically different, as happened with semiconductors, solar cells and batteries.

The US claims that it is the Champion of Disruptive Innovation.  Their “Internet”-entrepeneurs like Amazon, Google and Facebook believe in a “Statistical” model of Innovation, A Portfolio or an Innovation Ecology.

One of the many “Trials and Errors” will result in a big breakthrough that will Disrupt the Market. Behind Disruptive Innovation lies the Concept of Evolution, Survival of the Fittest, the Essence of Capitalism.

Disruptive Innovation uses Incremental Innovation to improve the Parts of the Portfolio.

Incremental Innovation (“Proces/Product/Business Model Improvement”) takes place  when an Innovation is improved until the Limits are reached.

Incremental Innovation could use the Efficient Small Steps of the Adiabatic Process to reach the Goal of the highly Effective.

Most of the time Proces/Product Improvement (“Standardization”) is not a Structured Process because People believe Innovation is about “Thinking Out of the Box”. If People “Think out of the Box” the proces will move into a Chaotic State and will Die.

Creative Incremental Innovation will produce a Lot of Waste (“Heat”, “Fuzz”) and accomplish Nothing. Managed Incremental Innovation has to remove the Waste and the Constraints.

With every step that is taken the System has to become more probable so the results of the proces will be more predictable. When the Limits are reached, we have to Restucture the System to move on.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics shows that Closed Systems finally Converge to a State of Equillibrium with a High Probability, a High Entropy.

Systems that are Isolated by a Boundary behave as Closed Systems. Systems that are Open to other Systems Merge and become Closed.

Most of the Time people don’t understand the Boundary of their System and Act in a Shared Boundary. In this Shared Boundary Competition takes place. Competition is a waste of Energy. If People could define their Boundaries they could Cooperate.

People Communicate. They  Share their Ideas, Problems and Solutions.  When a Process is well understood the Improvements of the Process are disseminated through the Human Networks and widely Copied.

Human Networks are Closed Systems that are connected to other Networks by Boundary Spanners.

Most people don’t understand that there are other people in other Networks who are doing the Same thing they are doing. They think their activity is Unique and don’t understand that the State of Uniqueness was only there at the Beginning.

Secrecy slows down communication between the People in the Network. The result of Secrecy is that People are unable to learn from others so they are unable to reuse the solutions of others. Secrecy is again a Waste of Time.

In the end the Competitive Advantage of the Innovation is completely gone and the Entropy of the System is at its Maximum.

At that moment every Process in every Part of the System will be the Same and the Companies will Merge or will be taken over by other Companies. Winner Takes All.

The Temperature of the Industry will move to Zero and every Movement (and Innovation) will stop.

About Creativity

There are two Views on Creativity. Creativity is a Combinatorical Game and Creativity is a Spontaneous Eruption of Ideas forced by High Pressure.

At such a moment, “the Aha-Erlebnis“, two or more Frames of Reference Fuse and a new Innovative Combination is created.

The last view has a lot to do with the theory of “Self-Organized Criticallity“.

The Metaphor of this Theory is the Disaster, the Avalanche or the Sand Pile that Suddenly moves when the critical grain of sand falls. At that moment a Significant Part of the Collection of individual grains Combines and moves on its own.

When a System is reaching the Boundaries of Proces Improvement and a Huge Pressure to Innovate is experienced,  two or more Systems (“Frames of Reference”) Fuse (Combine).

When the Systems are in Equilibrium the Fusion is easy (“Connecting”) otherwise the Fusion could become a Disaster, a Disruption, a Creative Destruction and a Huge Amount of Heat (Waste) is produced.

About Managed Creativity

If Innovation  is a Combinatorial Game we have to restructure a System into a “loosely-coupled”  System of Components and combine the Components with the “well-articulated” Components of other Systems.

A Loosely Coupled System is a System where each of its components has, or makes use of, little or no knowledge of the definitions of other separate components. The components act as Black-Boxes“.

A Component is “well-articulated” if it contains Just Enough Functionality to do the job. An Under-Articulated system is Rigid. It contains Not Enough functionality to Adapt to the Changing environment. When Systems grow old they become Over-Articulated because the Designers want to add new functionality without looking at the Boundaries of the System. Over-Articulated Systems overlap and it becomes very difficult to find the Essence. Designers always want to Solve every problem with their Own System.

Genrich S. Altshuller was a Russian Patent Officer who tried to find a Pattern behind Patents.

Altshuller screened over 200,000 patents looking for Inventive problems and how they were solved. Of these only 40,000 (20%) had somewhat Inventive solutions; the rest were straight forward improvements.

Altshuller defined an Inventive problem as one in which the solution causes another problem, a Contra-Diction or Conflict,  to appear. He found that the same problems had been solved over and over again using one of only Forty fundamental inventive principles. Altshuller  named his method  TRIZ.

Humans are prone to reivent the Wheel many times because they only look for Solutions in their own Frame of Reference. The Solution of their Problem is almost all the time already available in another Domain.

Roni Horowitz has analyzed the Principles of Althuller and found a deeper structure behind TRIZ which he called ASIT.

ASIT is about Thinking Inside the Box instead of Outside the Box. The so called Closed World condition, forces the thinker to find a creative solution by heavily limiting his or hers Space of Possibilities.

The Qualitative Change Principle looks for solutions in which the influence of the main problem factor is either totally eliminated or even reversed. The System has to become Perfect. Every Component has to fullfill just one Task  (“Well Articulated”) and the Functions of the System have to create a “Closed World” which means that the System has to be Closed in Itself.

About Combining the Combinations

The Second Law of Thermodynamics shows that it is Almost Impossible to move back to an old solution when the Solution is widely used.

Nature Solves its Problems by Experimenting but the Experiments are not completely at Random. Nature uses an Established Infrastructure and Plays with all the Possible Paths that Emerge out of the Existing Infrastructure, The Adjacent Possible.

Before life emerged on Earth, the planet was dominated by a handful of basic molecules. Each of these molecules was capable of a finite series of transformations and exchanges with other molecules in the primordial soup.

According to Stuart Kauffman Life  started when the Chemical Parts of early life  started to Re-Create themselves in a Cyclic Process  called AutoCatalysis. Re-Creation of the Same Structure is one of the most important principles of a Living System. Our body is recreated all the time in an endless Cycle until we Die.

If you could Play with all the Primordial Combinations, you would end up with the Components of Life but it is impossible to create a mosquito, or a sunflower, or a human brain.They were created when the Combinations started to Combine Again and Again.

Innovation in Nature is an endless Cyclic Expanding proces of Combining the Combinations.

This process moves on until the Limits of the Expanding Space of Possibilities are reached. These Limits are reached when there is not enough “useful” Energy available.

Combining the Combination happens in Nature but also in our Culture. Old infrastructures are used in a new way and a complete new field of Combinatorics appears.

Johannes Gutenberg took the older technology of the screw press, designed originally for making wine, and reconfigured it with metal type to invent the printing press which made it possible that new ideas, concepts and procedures were better dissiminated through the Human Networks.

Is there an End to Human Innovation?

The Universe is Expanding and is Creating New Combinations of Combinations all the Time.

The Law of Kleiber shows that the Combinations of the Combinations Fuse. The Law of Kleiber is just like Self-Organized Criticallity represented by a Power-Law. Power-Laws are independent of a Scale and therefore applicable on every Level of the Universe. They show that One Principle (“a Fractal“) Repeats itself on every Level.

Every time when the Combinations Fuse they are better equipped as a Transformer of Available Energy but the Creation of larger and larger islands of Order happens at the Expense of even greater seas of Disorder. Humanity is Wasting resources at an increasing rate, and that will lead to the destruction of our civilization.

The Combinations become Bigger and Bigger AND the Big Structures Attract Each Other. The larger group of possibilities will always be the Dominant Attractor.

This is the main reason for the success of Google, Facebook and Twitter. They have aquired the Power to Control their Market by Giving away their Products for Free so the Amount of Users would grow Exponentionally. They make money by letting other companies pay for the Use of their Huge Attractor.

The Small Auto-Katalytic Chemical Factories, the Bacteria,  that were created in the beginning are now fusing into Very Big Cities and the next Step will be One Mega-City covering a Huge Area of the Earth.  These Mega-Cities will be extremely Efficient and Effective. When this happens Nature will be replaced by a Human Made Technological Structure that has to use completely new ways to produce and use energy.

The next Step is easy to imagine. The Human Race will start to create new Mega-Cities on other Planets that will fuse into Mega-Planets.

The Big Problem will of course be Energy. We have to find new Sources all the time to support the Human Need to Expand and Discover. Every time when we create a new and Bigger Source of Energy the Amount of useless Heat will increase and the End of the Universe will get closer and closer.

Human Invention is Speeding Up the End because in the End Humans want to become One with the Whole.

According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics the Universe is moving to an Equilibrium State and not to an Extremely Impossible Innovative Configuration. At a Certain Point of Time Human Innovation has to Stop because we will reach the State of Absolute Zero Temperature and every Movement will Stop.

In the End the Universe will move into a State of Infinite Sleep.

What to Do?

The most important thing you can do when you want to Innovate is to create a Deep Understanding of just One Frame of Reference.

You have to become an Expert in Something and you have to have the attitude to create the Perfect Frame of Reference.

Every time when the System is not performing you have to solve the problem Inside the Box but you have to make use of Solutions that are Outside the Box.

Every Time when you are Satisfied,  remove a Constraint and Force Yourself to Solve the problem.

At a Certain Moment your Frame of Reference will Explode and will produce many Fragments. They are the Basic Building Blocks of Your Domain.

Start to Play with the Building Blocks and new Possibilities will appear that you have never Thought off.

You now have entered the Adjacent Possible.

LINKS

About Creativity and High Pressure

About Self-Organized Criticallity

About Self-Organized Criticallity and Innovation

About Complexity Theory and Innovation

About Loosely Coupled Systems

About Boundaries

About Triz

Stuart Kaufmann about Radical Emergence

Advanced Systematic Inventive
Thinking

About ASIT (Advanced Systematic Inventive Thinking)

How Nature Plays

About Constructal Law

About the Origin of Good Ideas

About the Adjecent Possible

About the Law of Kleiber

Why Cities are Organisms

About the Beginning of the Universe

About  the End of the Universe

About the Law of KLeiber

Friday, October 29th, 2010

A power law relates one variable to another raised to a constant power. The general form takes y = xa, where y and x are variables, and a is a constant exponent.

A power law exhibits the property of scale invariance. When you multiply the Scale (x) with a factor b the function (y =  baxa) does not change its Shape.

In 1817 Goethe wrote his book ”Zur Morphologie“. This book was the start of a new science called Morphology, the Science of the Shapes.

In his book Goethe describes the so called Uhrplant, the Primal Plant, which is based on the shape of the Leaf. Goethe believed that every Plant was a Leaf within a Leaf within a Leaf.

At the time of Goethe the concept of the fractal was not known. It was developed in 1975 by Benois Mandelbrot (“The Fractal Geometry of Nature”).

A fractal is a self-similar structure. It’s shape repeats itself on every level of expansion.  Some fractals are scale-invariant.

Scale Invariance in the Leaf

The scale invariant fractal structure of the Leaf

About Kleiber’s Law

Metabolism is the process by which your body converts what you eat and drink into energy. During this complex biochemical process, calories in food and beverages are combined with oxygen to release the energy your body needs to function.

The oldest and best known Power Law is Kleiber’s law devised by the Swiss-American zoologist Max Kleiber in 1932.

Kleiber’s Law, MR = W3/4, describes the relationship of the metabolic rate (MR) to the biomass W, raised to an exponent.

Kleiber’s law means that a cat’s metabolic rate is not a hundred or 21.5 times greater than a mouse’s, but about 31.6 — 100 to the three-quarter power.

This relationship seems to hold across the animal kingdom  and it has since been extended all the way down to single-celled organisms, and possibly within the cells themselves to the internal structures called mitochondria, the cellular powerplants, that turn nutrients into energy. Mitochondria have many features in common with bacteria.

The law of Kleiber is  also applicable to super-organisms” like ant colonies, Cities and Eco-Systems.

Because of Economies of Scale, larger and more complex forms of organisms need less energy for each individual cell. They grow and reproduce more slowly and they live longer.

Kleiber's law

Kleiber's law

About Fractals and Kleiber’s Law

Kleiber’s law can be explained from a general model that describes how essentialmaterials are transported through Space-Filling Fractal Networks of Branching Tubes.

Goethe was right. The leaf is a one of the fundamental structures of Nature.

The factor 3/4 (3/3+1)  is a consequence of the fact that a Fractal Structure has to incorporate a not-Fractal Structure, 3-Dimensional Space.

One of the Bilateria: The Octopus

One of our fellow Bilaterians: The Octopus

About Bilateria

About 590 million years ago, the Central Nervous System (CNS), the Brain, appeared.

The organisms with a CNS (including the Humans), the Bilateria, are able to Act and React to a Possible Harmful Stimulus.

The CNS of the Bilateria is  a result of  an Increase in Competition between the Life Forms that came out of the Continuing Fusion of  the Cooperative Life Forms, the Bacteria. The first step in this proces was the Tube of the Sponge.

The fundamental Bilaterian Body Shape is a Tube running from Mouth to Anus, and a second Tube called the Notochord, with an especially large Sphere at the front, called the “Brain“.

The Bilateria have Five Body Spheres (1) the Brain; (2) the Spinal Cord; (3) the Heart and Lungs; (4) the Digestive Organs and Kidneys; (5) the Bladder and Reproductive organs.

Lung

About the Tiny Spheres of the Lungs

When we look at the Lungs, one of the Fractal Tube-like branching-structures of the human organism, we can see that the Branches end in Nodes called the alveoli (“little cavities“). The end-nodes of the branching system are tiny Spheres.

Alveoli

The Alveoli use another basic structure of Nature: The Sphere

In the tiny Spheres the Exchange takes place of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen between the Lungs and the Blood-Vessels. Each human lung contains about 600 million alveoli.

Water diffuses from the alveoli cells into the alveoli so that they are constantly moist.  Oxygen dissolves in this water before diffusing through the cells into the blood.

The Oxygen-rich blood returns to the Heart via the pulmonary veins to be pumped back into circulation. The Carbon Dioxide is pumped out by the Lungs.

In the many million Small Spherical End-Nodes Two Circulatory Systems, the Cardiovascular System (Heart) and Pulmonary System (Lungs), are Connected.

The Big Structures of Nature are able to Scale because the Connection-Points of the Networks are Very Small.

They are reusable on Every Scale that is Bigger than the Scale of the Connection Points.

We will see that all the other Fractal Systems in our Body are based on the Same Principle.

Villi

Villi

About the Tube of the Digestive System

The Tube contains the Digestive System. It breaks-down larger food molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed into the blood stream. This happens in the Small Intestine in the vili and microvilli.

The villi (“shaggy hair“)  are tiny, finger-like projections that are approximately 0.5-1mm in length. The microvilli are mechanosensors and have a lot in common with the flagellum (“the roter“) of a bacterium. Microvilli appear in many places in the body. They are also of importance on the cell surface of white blood cells, as they aid in the migration of white blood cells.

The Tube of our Digestive System is highly similar to the Tube of the Sponge, the first fusion of the Bacteria in a  more efficient metabolic structure.

The Output part of the Tube is called the Large Intestine (Colon). Its function is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter, and then to pass Useless Waste Material from the body. The large intestine houses over 700 species of bacteria that perform a variety of functions.

Liver

The Liver Fractal

About the Chemical Factory of the Liver Cell.

The Liver is  a Fractal Branching System that detoxifies harmful substances absorbed via the Small Intestines.  It’s basic structure is the Liver Cell.

The Chemical reactions in the liver cells produces a lot of waste heat. This is carried round the body in the blood and warms less active regions.

The Liver regulates the amount of Blood Sugar, Lipids, Amino Acids.  The Liver is the Storage House of  Blood, Iron, Vitamine A, D, B12  and Clycogen, the Source of Energy of the Body.

The Liver produces Bile that is stored in the Gall Bladder. Bile is used to dissolve fat.

White Blood Cell

The White Blood Cell

About the Spleen and the Immune System

Another Fractal Branching System, the Lymphatic System ( “The Immune System“, Spleen),  maintains the health of the body by protecting it from invasions by harmful pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These pathogens are the cause of many diseases, so it is necessary to detect and eliminate them rapidly.

The Lymphatic System is connected to the Blood System and produces the White Blood Cells (Lymphocites).  The Lymphocites are the Basic Unit of the Human Defense System. They look like Bacteria.

A lymphocite fits with a pathogen

A lymphocite fits with a pathogen

The surface of a lymphocyte is covered with a large number of identical receptors. Recognition and destruction occurs when the receptors of the lymphocyte fit like a key into the surface of the pathogen.

The Immune System is a Highly Adaptive System. It is able to generate new types of Lymphocites out of a Library of DNA-components.

Nephron

Nephron

About the Kidneys and the Bladder

The Kidneys serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes which are diverted to the urinary bladder. The Nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. In humans, a normal kidney contains 800,000 to 1.5 million nephrons. Nephrons are wave-like structures. Its chief function is to regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium salts by filtering the blood.

About the Electro Magnetic System

The last  Fractal Branching System, the Meridians, is a Fast Electro-Magnetic Channel that connects to Organs to the Spine and the CNS.

The Ancient Chinese Scientists believed that this System pumps its Energy, the Chi Force, out of the Earth Magnetic Field.

The Ancient Egyptian Scientists believed the same thing. They named  the Four Cavities the Four Suns of Horus and the Spine, the Djed Pillar (Dj means “Snake”).

The Five Organs of Acupuncture

The Five Systems of Acupuncture

About the number Five

The number Five (4 +1 ) plays an important role in Ancient Chinese Medicine.

The Central Fractal System, the One (1), the Fire System, the Blood System, with its Center the Heart,  contains Four (4) Links to the Other Systems.

The Four Systems are combinations of Two Forces, Expansion and Compression.

The Two Forces came out of One Force (“The Void“).

Two Systems contain the same combination (Expansion x Expansion (Wood, Gall Bladder, Liver, Three Heater), Compression x Compression (Metal, Lungs)).

Two Systems combine Expansion and Compression in a different order (Expansion x Compression, Compression x Expansion). They create a Wave (Water, Bladder, Kidney) or Spiral -like (Earth, Immune System) structures.

The Five Spheres of the Body are incorporated in one Super Protective Sphere, the Coelum, the Skin.

In the Human Embryo the First step of Division of the Cells is between the Coelum,the Multi-Cellar Body, and the Brain, the CNS. In the first step the One was divided into the Two, the Actor and the Monitor.

The CNS  “mirrors” the activities of  the Body and acts as a “predictive simulator”.

The Shape of the CNS is a mirror (Up-Side-Down) of the Shape of the Multic-Cellular Body.

The Bilateria are a Fuse of two Organisms in which one organism changed into the Body and the other changed into the Brain.

These two structures are always competing in the Human Being.

The Brain is Looking Up at the Sky. The Body is Looking Down at Mother Earth, it’s Creator.

The Brain and the Body are United in  the Heart, the Balancer of Body and Soul and the Keeper of the Rhythm (The Pericardium).

Sponge

Sponge, The Tube

About Bacteria

The Body Shape of the Tube was inherited from the first Multi-Cellular Organism, the Sponge. The Sponge is a  Static Cluster of Amoeba, free moving bacteria, that are propelled by their flagellum (a Roter).

Bacterium

The Basic Building Block of the Body, the Bacterium

Bacteria are small chemical factories that are able to share and combine their production processes by exchanging DNA.

With their flagellum the Bacteria Explore the environment to find the chemical food they need. When they have found food the Circulation of the Flagellum moves into the Opposite Direction.

The bacterium integrates incoming chemical signals during a few-second period of its travels, and adjusts its direction of advance accordingly.

The integration is achieved through temporary chemical modifications to molecules located in the bounding membrane, which transfer nutrients to the cytoplasm, and also through changes to certain other molecules in the interior of the cell. Such integration is essentially a short-term memory mechanism.

Bacteria exchange their DNA

Bacteria exchange their DNA

At a certain moment the Bacteria got together because the Sponge is a much more Efficient Metabolic Structure than a group of Free Moving Bacteria.

Strangely enough the DNA of the Sponge already contains the complete Bleuprint of the Humans.

Scientists now believe that most species on earth are a result of a loss of DNA from the original Bleuprint that was created when the Bacteria finally fused into one Organism.

About the Nano-Level

Recently scientists have found Electric Fields as strong as 15 million volts per meter in the Nano-Parts of the Cells. These fields are as strong as those produced in lightning bolts.

It’s not clear what causes these strong fields or what they might mean but they could account for a until now unknown (by Science) or well-known (by the Old Scientists, Chi) Source of  Bodily Energy.

The nano-parts of the Cell could be the very very very small universal building blocks of Nature.

What has Happened?

In the beginning the Chemical Soup generated Self-Reproducing Chemical Factories.

These Factories combined into bigger Factories by exchanging and combining their factory-designs.

Every time when the Factories fused they became more Efficient, Bigger, Stronger, Older and therefore more Competitive.

When the Factories became more competitive they had to Protect themselves against the other Factories.

To Protect themselves the Multi-Cellular Systems started to Sense in Many Directions.

In the first step a Nerve-Net was created.

In the second step one part of the Organism turned Upside-Down and became a Specialized Predictive System (the CNS).

This part fused with the Bodily Part creating one Organism that contained Two Organisms.

The Bilateria, the Organisms with Two Complementary Parts, Body and Mind, were born.

Some of the Bilateria called Humans fused in Social Structures and the Social Structures fused and fused and became more efficient, bigger, stronger, older and therefore more competitive.

In due time they will Rule the Earth and will start to create bigger and bigger systems until they will rule the complete Universe.

To make this possible the Humans need every other part of Nature to Sustain their Growth. This will certainly result in a huge Collapse of their own Eco-System.

The main reason this is happening is that the Humans forgot to Copy the Designs of Mother Nature.

The Brain (Thinking and Sensing, Left Brain), Looking Up at the Sky,  believed it could do a much Better Job than it’s counterpart the Multi-Cellular Body (Emotions and Imagination, Right Brain), Looking Down at the Earth, the Source of All Creation.

Kleiber’s Law shows that we are now using 122 times more Energy per Person than we really would need if we would Scale in the right way.

What can we learn from Kleiber’s Law?

All organisms including the humans depend for their maintenance and reproduction on the close integration of numerous subunits.

These components need to beserviced in a relatively `democratic’ and efficient fashionto supply energy, remove waste  and regulate activity.

Natural Selection solved this problem byevolving hierarchical fractal-like branching networks, whichdistribute Energy, Information and Materials between Big Reservoirs (“Lungs”) and Small Connection Points (“Alveoli”) of other Circulatory Systems (“Blood”).

This Fractal Bottum-Up approach is highly effective and efficient.

The not-fractal, Top-Down,  machinery designed by the Humans is Scaled with a factor 1 so we can improve a lot by copying Mother Nature.

LINKS

About Goethe and Morphology

About the Heart Chakra or Why the Heart connects the Brain and the Body

How to use the Heart to find Balance

About the Heart and Ethics

Why Humans look a lot like Bacteria

About Kleibers Law and the Rain Forest

About the Five Worldviews

A movie about Fractal Structures in Nature

About the Fusion of Water in the Cell

About the Number Five in Chinese Medicine

Why Humans are part of Super Organisms

How the Humans evolved out of the Bacteria

About the Left and the Right Brain

About the Void

How the Heart synchronizes the Body

About the Fast Transmisson Channel in the Body

About Kleiber’s Law

A general model to explain Kleiber’s Law

About Kleiber’s Law and the Growth of Cities

About the Immune System

About Bacteria

About the Law of Kleiber and Ant Colonies

The terrestrial evolution of metabolism and life

A movie about the origin of vertebrates

About Entrainment

Thursday, August 26th, 2010

In 1665 the Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens noticed that two pendulum clocks in his room tended to Swing in Sync. The same happens with fireflies, cardiac pacemaker cells,  menstrual cycles, birds in flight, walking, dancing, circadian rhythms in animals, quantum gravity theory, dialogues and people in a crowd.

Two connected Systems always Entrain because Every System in our Universe Vibrates and is connected.

birds in sync

Birds in Sync

When the Parts are  connected, the Rhythm of the Whole controls the Rhythm of the Parts.

The transformations of the seperate parts takes place in two steps. In the first step the variance of the frequencies of the parts is reduced but the oscillators remain incoherent, each running near its natural frequency, until a certain threshold is crossed. Then the oscillators begin to synchronize spontaneously. The effect is somewhat like the outbreak of synchronous applause after a magnificent concert.

To make the transformation possible the Parts have to adjust their behavior. They have to move with the Rhythm of the Flow of the Central Clock. At the end of the transformation from isolated Parts to the Whole the Parts are the Same. They are Copying each other.

When people are copying other people they lose their identity and move into a trance-state. The same effect can be accomplished with hypnosis.  When people are in a trance-state it is easy to manipulate them.

About Copying

Humans are Copiers. When we look at the Science of Coupled Oscillators it becomes clear that Copying is not an intentional act. People and other Systems are more or less forced to copy others when the frequencies of their systems are within a certain bandwith.

When people are close and are focused on a shared target (a soccer match, a concert, a conversation, a dance, a common goal) the human parts start to synchronize and become a Crowd, an entity that starts to act on its own.

About Communication

The word “communion” means “becoming a union“. All communication arises through Synchronization. All communications are dances that coordinate the rhythmic processes shared among the engaging systems.

Communication is not a transmission of information, but rather a coordination of behavior among living organisms through Mutual Structural Coupling. Just like the Crowd, a communication, starts to live a life of its own, when the exchange of the vibrations of the conversation starts to synchronize. This happens within seconds.

conversation1

In the 1960’s, William Condon of Boston University School of Medicine pioneered the empirical study of communication as coupling. In the microanalysis of a few seconds of film he was astonished to find how the voice and bodily movements of speaker and listener were coordinated within intervals as short as 20 milliseconds.

Condon introduced the term entrainment to describe the coupled behavior. He noted that: “Communication is thus like a dance, with everyone engaged in intricate and shared movements across many subtle dimensions, yet all strangely oblivious that they are doing so“.

Coupling begins with getting the attention of other organisms, or more accurately, with distracting the organisms from other engagements so they are able to discern and respond to this engagement.

When the Oscillations of two Systems are outside a certain bandwith it looks like the most powerful system takes over control. The frequency of the synchronized system is a mean and when big numbers and small numbers are added the small numbers simply disappear. This situation is called an Overload.

Overloads are able to kill small systems because the small system is unable to cope with the huge pertuberations. People with a Dominant Personality are able to force (to entrain) Dependent people to copy their behavior.

About Synchronization

A System of N coupled different oscillators creates a very complex almost unsolvable mathematical problem. In 1975 Charles Peskin formulated the conjecture  that Systems would eventually synchronize even when the parts are not identical. In 1990 the conjecture has been proven by Strogatz and Mirollo.

Systems of Coupled Oscillators show four states called Phase Locking (Synchronization), Phase Drift (“Chaos“)  and Amplitude Death (“Order“). In the last state the oscillations stop completely.  The fourth state called a Chimera is a combination of a synchronized and a drifting state.

The most important issue to notice is the fact that the state of Amplitude Death is what we call Order. It is an exceptional state that can be reached when the exchange of information between the states is “compensating” the vibrations of the states or when the System is “compressed” into a Singularity.

synchronization

Most Systems are oscillating (“Cyclic“) and are in a Phase Drift (“Chaos“) or a Chimera trying to reach some sort of Synchronicity with the other connected Systems. In Nature every System is connected to every other System because of the Electro-Magnetic (and Sound) Fields they share.

Systems of Coupled Oscillators behave differently when the connections between the parts are delayed. It this case highly identical parts start to behave as not identical parts. When a delay occurs the stable rhythm of the heart can suddenly stop, resulting in a sudden death.

About the Circadian Clock

In order to cope with and to predict 24-hour rhythms in the environment, such as light and darkness, temperature or the availability of food, most, if not all, organisms have Circadian (“Daily“) Timing Systems. These systems generate circadian rhythms in a wide range of behavioral and physiological processes.

For most animal species, a main circadian pacemaker has been identified in an anatomically defined location in or close to the brain. During the last years, however, it has become clear that circadian systems are complex and that additional oscillators exist, both within and outside the central nervous system.

The Peripheral Circadian Clocks are situated in the Heart, the Liver, the Lungs and the Kidney. These organs are the same “organs” that are used in Chinese Acupuncture which is not strange because the Aim of Acupuncture is to Balance the Electro Magnetic Field in the Body.

For a correct functioning of the circadian timing system, these oscillators should be synchronized to one another and properly phased to the environmental cycle.

Synchronization between the oscillators occurs via interactions or coupling pathways, whereas the light-dark cycle is used for synchronization to the outside world.

The most important mammalian circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) at the base of the hypothalamus in the brain.

From the suprachiasmatic nucleus, nerve impulses travel via the sympathetic nervous system to the pineal gland and inhibit the production of melatonin. At night, these impulses stop and melatonin production ensues and is released into the body.

In fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds, the pineal gland appears to be directly sensitive to small amounts of light that penetrate the skin and skull.

In mammals, with increased development of the cerebral hemispheres, the pineal body came to lie deeper within the brain and indirect stimulation of the pineal gland by light via the retina came to be more important. The Suprachiasmatic Nuclei are connected to the Outer Eye and the Inner Eye, the Pineal Gland.

The Pineal Gland is called the 6th Chakra, the Third Eye (or the Eye of Horus), the Seat of the Imagination.  The Imagination, the Central Clock of our Body, is “in control” of all the other Clocks in our Body.

With the Help of our Imagination we are able to Cure and to Kill the Body.

pineal

Pineal Gland

About the Pineal Gland

The Earth is a huge magnetic sphere. The E/M field of the Earth varies in strength and consistency through the ages. Our bodies own magnetic frequencies and our bio-field patterns react to this variance of the Earth’s field.

The pineal gland is the principal structure in the brain that is directly sensitive to the Earth’s magnetic field. The Pineal Gland Senses the Field.  To sense the Field the Pineal Gland contains small calcite crystals.

Our bone structure Converts Vibrational Energy into Magnetic and Electric Energy. When the bone is bent it produces an E/M-field. This E/M-field interacts with the Pineal Gland and creates a Feed-Back Cycle.

The E/M-field of our Body, the Aura, is a combination of all kind of waves. A special type of wave-structure is called a Standing Wave.

When the E/M-field acts as a Standing Wave all the waves are in harmony and conserve structure. The Human body is in harmony when the total field of all the separate E/M-fields of the Body act as a Standing Wave.

The Standing Wave appears when the Spinal Wave of the Vertebrae of the Body is in a special Alignment.  If this happens the Standing Wave of the Spine Resonates with the Standing Wave of the Earth. At that moment the Kundalini Rises and the Pineal Gland reacts with a Huge Mystical Experience.

About the Heart

The heart beats about once a second throughout your life. These regular contractions pump blood to the Upper (Head) and the Lower part of the body and are driven by electrical impulses from a natural pacemaker inside the heart.

This pacemaker, known as the sino-atrial node, responds to signals from the Central Circadian Clock situated in the Hypothalamus that changes the heart rate according to the body’s needs (“the action potential“), making it slower when resting and faster during exercise.The rhythmic contractions of the heart are triggered by waves of electrical activity that spread from the sino-atrial node throughout the heart muscle.

There are small fluctuations in the time intervals between beats that are fractal in nature, and a loss in this variability is a sign of cardiac ill health. However, a cardiac arrhythmia, in which the rhythm of electrical waves that drive the heart is broken, can be lethal.

A loss in the synchronized rhythm of the heart causes different parts of the atrial or ventricular muscle to contract at different times, undermining the pumping action of the heart. An arrhythmia therefore leads to the mechanical failure of the heart.

The propagation of excitations in heart tissue can be described in terms of travelling waves with a velocity of about 0.5 m s-1 and an amplitude given by the action potential. Since the action potential lasts for several hundreds of milliseconds, a single wave extends over a distance of about 10 cm. This means that a normal human heart is hardly large enough to contain a single wave.

In the heart the wave propagates around a circular obstacle. The wave repeatedly travels along the same path at a frequency given by the wave velocity divided by the circumference of the obstacle.

If the radius is gradually decreased, the frequency increases until the wavefront of a new wave catches up with the tail of the previous wave. If the radius is made even smaller, the wave is forced to adopt a spiral shape that continues to rotate around a central core. Spiral  Waves have been observed in numerous chemical and physical experiments.

The Wave Structure of the Heart resembles the Wave Structure of the Universe. This could be the reason why the Heart plays such  an important role in many Religions.

When the Wave Structure of the Heart is coherent with the Wave Structure of the Whole, the Rhythm of your Life is in Sync with the Rhythm of the Universe.

The Pacemaker Cells are called the Heart Chakra, the 4th Chakra. The Heart Chakra acts as the Balance Point for all the Chakras.

The Balancing Point is the Middle of two Triangels related to  the Head and the Body that rotate With- and Counter-the-Clock creating a Moebius Ring.  The Pineal Gland, the Central Clock, is part of the Upper Triangel of the Mind.

Spiral Waves in the Heart

Chemical Spiral Waves

Chemical Spiral Waves

About Cymatics

In 1967, the late Hans Jenny, a Swiss doctor, artist, and researcher, published the book Cymatics,  The Structure and Dynamics of Waves and Vibrations. In this book Jenny showed what happens when one takes various materials like sand, spores, iron filings, water, and viscous substances, and places them on vibrating metal plates and membranes.

What then appears are shapes and motion- patterns which vary from the nearly perfectly ordered and stationary to those that are turbulently developing, organic, and constantly in motion.

When Jenny experimented with Fluids of various kinds he produced Wave motions, Spirals, and wave-like patterns in Continuous Circulation.

These patterns are the same patterns that are produced by Coupled Oscillators. This is not strange because Sound Waves are highly comparable to Electro Magnetic Waves.

With the help of simple tools it is possible to Simulate the Creation and Expansion of the Universe.

We don’t need very complicated tools to observe the Whole. The Whole shows its patterns everywhere, even in your bathtub.

The Whirpool Galaxy

The Whirpool Galaxy

About the Creation of the Universe

In beginning the Void, the Zero Point Field,  rotated in Silence until a Huge Action Potential disturbed its Eternal Rest.

The Void was in a state of Amplitude Death until a Statistical Fluctuation, an Act of Creation, moved the System into a Chimera and later a Phase Drift.

Out of the Phase Drift Two Coupled Oscillators (Yin & Yang) appeared that moved With- and Against the Clock creating a Spiral Motion, a Vortex.

The Two Coupled Oscillators were each others Complement because two Coupled Oscillators are always Complementary.

After a while the Phase Drift generated Four and More Oscillators and Space started to Expand.

The pattern of this Expansion is governed by the Metallic Mean, which generates Fluent or Quasi Crystals. Fluent Crystals are the basic structure of the Electro Magnetic System of the Human. Scientists believe that the basic structure of our Universe is a Fluent Crystal, a Hall of Mirrors.

Quasi Crystals

Quasi Crystals

Space stops expanding when the Unbalance of the Energy of the Act of Creation is compensated by the amount of Oscillators (Strings) of Expanding Space.

At that moment the Universe will move into the State of Synchronization and all the Parts will move with the Rhythm of the Central Clock, the Tao.

When this happens the Universe starts to contract until Space has reached the Void.

In the last step the Oscillation will stop and the Void and Amplitude Death will appear again.

LINKS

How bacteria entrain

Steven Strogatz: About Coupled Oscillators and Biology

A lecture about Coupled Oscillators

A presentation about Coupled Oscillators

About Engagement

About Standing Waves

About the Electro Magnetic Field in the Body

About the Cardiac Pacemaker Cells

About Cymatics

About the Heart Chakra

About Stress and the Action Potential

About the Zero Point Field

About the Metallic Mean

About the Hall of Mirrors

About Good Vibrations

Sunday, August 1st, 2010

The Good (Creation) and the not-Good, the Bad (Destruction),  are two Waves that are moving in Opposite Directions. Together they create interference patterns called Standing Waves.

Standing Waves are Waves that preserve their Form and can be perceived as Material Particles.

If the Good is a Wave Moving with the Clock, the Bad is a Wave Moving Against the Clock.

I believe the Good is moving with the Clock because the words “Right” and “Wrong” were associated with the Right Hand and the Left Hand and the concept “moving” (wringen in Dutch).

In Magic the Left Hand Path is associated with Black Magic and in many cultures the Left is associated with Evil.

In China the Rotation with the Clock is called the Generating Cycle and the Rotation Against the Clock the Destructing Cycle.

The Standing Waves of Matter contain the Bad and the Good in a certain proportion. Therefore every part of Nature (including the Humans) contains a piece of the Bad and a piece of the Good. That’ s why it is rather difficult to make a distinction between both of them.

There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so“  (Hamlet Act 2, scene 2, 239–251)

Doppler_div

A Moving Standing Wave

proton10

Two Moving Standing Waves Interfere and produce a Magnetic Field

About the Svara

The idea that our Universe is a Wave goes back a very long time. In Ancient Indian Philosophy the Wave of the Universe was called the Svara, the Wave of Life.

It is the manifestation of the impression on matter of the Power Which Knows Itself (Atman). The Atman arises out of the Emptyness (Brahman). The Emptyness is a Mystery. It is impossible to Reason about it.

The Svara consists of Five Types of Waves called Tattvas. They represent distinctive Forms and Vibratory Motions and are the five modifications of the Great Breath, Prana, of  the Atman. Prana is called Chi in China.

The first Wave that came out of the Atman is called the Âkâsha (Spirit, Egg, Black). After this came  the Vâyu (Air, the Circle, Blue), the Tejas (Fire, the Triangle, Red), the Apas (Water, the Crescent of the Moon, Silver) and the Prithivi (Earth, the Square, Yellow).

The Svara has two different States,  the Bright Sun-Breath  and the Dark Moon-Breath. In the first state the Svara expands, away from the Void. In the second state it contracts and moves back to the beginning.
At a certain moment we will experience the spectacular Twist of the Svara. This is the moment when Time will move back and the Apas (Aquarius, Water) will dominate the Fire (Bull) of the Tejas.
The Âkâsha and the other Four States of the Svara are the States of what Western Scientists call the Aether, the Carrier of the Standing Waves of the Universe.
The Five Tattvas

The Five Tattvas

About the Aether

Until the experiments of Michelson and Morley in 1887 every Physicist believed in the existence of the Aether. Everybody was very surprised when the experiments showed that the Aether was moving with a constant speed, the Speed of Light, in both directions of measurement.

Nobody questioned the experiments so a completely new theory had to be created to explain the strange behavior of Light. This new theory was the Relativity Theory of Albert Einstein.

The situation became even stranger when Niels Bohr (and others) invented Quantum Mechanics and showed that Light could be interpreted as a particle, a Photon, and a Wave.

At that time almost nobody understood the Concept of the Standing Wave. A Standing Wave is a Wave that preserves its Form and therefore shows itself as a Particle.

It is now proved that Michelson and Morley made a fatal mistake. The Unification of the Theories of Einstein and Bohr is going on but two foundations of the Theory of Einstein, the non-existence of the Aether and the Constant speed of Light, are gone.

The concept of the Aether, the Svara,  is back and new theories of the Universe based on Standing Waves are produced and verified. These theories are much simpler than the old theories.

What is the Same?

The Ethical Law of Resonance states that ”The Same attracts the Same and Repels the Not-the Same“.  The Good  attracts the Good and the Bad attacts the Bad but the Good also repels the Bad and the Bad repels the Good.  If we are able to define the Same we are able to define the Good and the Bad.

When you want to find out if some Thing is the same as another Thing you have to define the concept of “the-sameness“.

Every thing is different from any other thing when you collect enough different data about both of them. When you ignore every detail every thing  is the same (A = A). When two objects are literally “the same” we call this relationship an equality (A=B).

The same objects can appear differently when we Look at them differently. In this case a “the sameness” (now called a congruency) appears when we are able to create the same object when we move (translate), rotate or reflect the other object.

congruent2

Two Congruent Triangels

To find an independent reference framework for an Observer who is “not moving” and a constant Speed of Light Einstein had to abstract from Translation, Rotation, Reflection and Movement (Speed and Acceleration). Einstein’s friend Minkowski solved his problem by creating a new type of “curved” space now called Minkowski Space.

The Ancient Scientists of India not only abstracted the Aether from the Eyes like Einstein did. They abstracted the Aether from the other Four Senses too.

Every Tattva represents another Sense Organ and a related Wave pattern. The interesting point is that the Waves of the Tattva of the Eyes, the Light Waves, the Tejas, behave, exactly the way the current scientists describe.

The current Scientists ignore the fact that Humans observe their Environment with their Five Senses. The ancient Scientists not only detected five types of Waves. They also found a way to combine the Five Wave-Types into one Wave Model.

In general Objects are “the same” when we are able to find a Structure Preserving, isomorphic, transformation (F) from Object A to Object B. F(A)=B and G(B)= A and FG=Identity. With the help of an Isomorphic Transformation you are able to map a structure A to another structure B  and move back to the same structure A.

Every Isomorphic transformation can be seen as a “specialized Organ“, that  ”looks” at Reality in its own way.

The mathematical field of Topology is concerned with the “the sameness” of objects that are Expanded and Compressed. Topology represents the Organ of the Emotions. With this organ we are able to  research the effects of the Great Breath of the Prana.

Mug_and_Torus_morph

Transforming a Mug into a Torus

About the Great Breath

With the help of isomorphic  “topological” transformations it is possible to make the huge Diversity of Forms in our Universe the Same. It is even possible to compress every structure in our Universe into one structure, the structure of the Void.

In this case there are a few topological possibilities depending on the dimensions of space. In two dimensions we can choose out of the Point and the Circle, a Closed Line. In higher dimensions strange twisted structures appear such as the Moebius Ring and the Klein Bottle.

If the Universe is compressed into a Rotating Circle,  The One who is in the Centre always Returns on Itself.  The Universe is expanding and compressing until Eternity. At a certain time even after a huge expansion the Power of Creation is able to “Knows Itself”. This concept is called the Cyclic Universe.

If the Universe is compressed  into a point, called a singularity, we live in a “Big Bang-universe“, the standard cosmological model, which will expand into Eternity.

It will be clear that the structure in the beginning determinates the way the Waves of the Universe expand.

Twisted Topological Structures

Twisted Topological Structures that are Closed in Itself

If the Universe is Closed in Itself the Outbound Waves of the Beginning  will meet the Inbound Waves of the Utmost Boundary and will create Interference Patterns that look like Standing Waves.

When the Universe was small the Interference Patterns came up almost immediately. When the Universe expanded it took more time to Close the Loop.

If the Universe is a Closed System, the Waves of the Past and the Waves of the Future will meet in the Now.  At every moment in Time we are able to look into a possible Future and a possible Past.

At every moment in Time we can Change the Past and the Future if we are able to start a Powerful Negative (Destructive, Bad) or Positive  (Creative, Good) Wave of our Own.

According to the Ancient Scientists the Forces of the Tattvas at a certain Level of Enfolding represented Consciouss Beings (Angels, Devils) who could be Called to help to influence the Standing Waves of Matter.

In the strange terminology of Quantum Mechanics this state is called a Quantum Superposition and the union of the waves is called Quantum Entanglement. Quantum Entanglement moves with a speed much higher than the Speed of Light.

Sometimes the fragmented Tones of the Universe unite into one Symphony when the Strings of the many Violins of the Individual Standing Waves are in Tune.

We are able to change the Past and the Future when we are in Tune with the Waves of the Universe.

About the  Number Five

The symbol of the number Zero (“0″) looks like an Egg, the Âkâsha. The Âkâsha represents Space.

The name “zero” comes from the Arabic صفر, şafira, “it was empty” and the Sanskrit śūnya “void” or “empty”. The 0, Space, was Empty, Ø, before it was created.

According to many creation myths the beginning of this world,  Non-Being, Ø, the Empty Set, expanded into an Egg, 0.

The Egg started to Rotate (Air, Vayu, Movement) and was splitted into the Duality (-1,1), the Crescent of the Moon (Apas), the In-Between-Moon or Half Moon (1/2).

The negative part of the Duality started to move in the Opposite Direction. At that moment the Good (Creation) and the Bad (Destruction) were created.

The Apas are the force of Contraction (Control), the Opposite of the Tejas, Fire (Desire), the Force of Expansion. The Apas wants to bring the System back to the Void.

In the Beginning the Good (Fire) was much stronger than the Bad (Water). Therefore the Universe started to Expand.

The Trinity, the Triangel (Tejas, Fire), contains three numbers (-1, 0, +1). When the first Trinity was created the Force of Fire and Desire, the Tejas, started to Expand the Trinity into more Trinities. The production of Trinities in Trinities is a Fractal Pattern (“So Above, So Below“).

The first two Triangels, the Triangel of the Trinity of the Mind of the Atman and the Trinity of the Material World, are combined into a Square (Prithivi, Earth). The Prithivi are seen as the Force of Resistance, the Opposite of Âkâsha, Space.

The Prithivi, the Square of the Four Forces, the Human,  resists the movement back to the Void. The main reason is that the connection between the Spiritual World and the Material World is very strong.

The Spirit of the Human, situated in the Heart Chakra,  needs Matter to create all the possible combinations of the Becoming Trinities to Experience the Fullness of Being.

The Square is a combination of two Triangels. It is represented by the Of Star of David, the Symbol of the Heart Chakra.

The Square is a combination of two Triangels. The Square, the Four Foces of Nature, is represented by the Star of David, the Symbol of the Heart Chakra.

The number Five can be found in the Middle of the oldest Magical Square on Earth, the Lo Shu Square. The Lo Shu Square was given to Emperor Yu the Great after the Great Flood (3117 BC) by a Turtle, the symbol of the Star System Orion.

About the Magic Square of Lo Shu

The Lo Shu Magic Square contains the numbers 1-9 (3×3). In every direction they add up to a total of 15 (3×5).

The Magic Square Constraints the Expansion of the Force of Fire and makes it possible that the Cycle moves back to the zero, the Void, the Mystery.

The Lo Shu Square in the Middle of the Mystic Tablet from Tibet

The Lo Shu Square in the Middle of the Mystic Tablet from Tibet

-1 4 -3
-2 0 2
3 -4 1

When we subtract all the numbers in the Magic Square with the number 5,  the Zero of the Egg of the Âkâsha appears in the Middle.

The transformed Magic Square shows an interesting symmetry.

On the six “crosses” the same negative and positive Tattvas are found. The Four Tattvas are Balanced in the o, Space, the Âkâsha.

On the straight lines  two symmetric patterns emerge ((-1,4,-3) and (1,2,-3)) again both positive and negative. In these patterns the 4 balances the 1 and the 3 and the 2 balances the 3 and the 1.

When we follow the Numbers of the Square from -4 to +4, the Sheng Cycle appears.

About the Sheng Cycle

The Sheng Cycle not only contains the Cycle of the Five Tattvas. It also contains Five Triangels in which One Tattvas Balances Two other Tatvass.

The number Five is the same as the Number Zero when we accept that there are Two Structures (or Two Universes). One structure rotates in the Positive Domain, The Sun, and one in the Negative Domain, The Moon.

The Square represents the Four Force of Nature who are the Four Combinations of the Two Forces of the Duality, Compression and Expansion, Yin and Yang, the Apas and the Tejas, Fire and Water, Control and Desire.

The Sheng Cycle is the major Cycle in Chinese Philosophy. It was used to explain and control the many levels of existence (State, Family, Environment, Body,..).

The Sheng Cycle moves in two directions, With the Clock (Generating, +1) and Against the Clock (Destructing, -1).

When we combine the two Cycles a 9(3×3)-fold Twisted Moebius Ring is created with the Earth in the Middle. This Cycle is represented by the Symbol of Infinity (). This Cycle is comparable to the Tree of Life, the Jewish Sephiroth and the Ancient Egyptian Pesedjet (the Nine).

In the Bright (positive) Part of the Moebius Ring we are in the Sun-State, Life. In the Dark (negative) Part we experience the Moon-State , Death, the Underworld (Our Twin Universe), the place where the Souls exist when they Die.

Now it becomes very clear what the Ancient Indian Scientist meant with the Dark Moon-State of the Svara. When the Wave of Life moves back to the Center, the Void, Death will become Life  (“the Death will be raised“), Time will Reverse, the Universe will Compress and the Good will become the Bad.

The Sheng Cycle

The Sheng Cycle

About Harmonics

In 1931 the US Department of Commerce assigned Edward Dewey the task of discovering the cause and underlying dynamics of the Great Depression. The US Government created a special institute the Foundation for the Study of Economic Cycles. The Institute contains a huge database of the times-series of almost every Cycle there is.

The most interesting observation of Edward Dewey is that Cycles restore themselves all the time and are influenced by other Cycles. The Cycles Resonate.

Ray Tomes, a statistical mathematician, started to do research on the time-series of the Institute. He confirmed the Insights of Dewey but with the much more powerful tools of his time he was able to dig a lot more deeper into data.

Tomes detected a relationship between the Cycles and Music, the Âkâsha. Tomes also developed a  method to find the basic structure behind the Waves of the many Cycles.

Tomes found one Basic Standing Wave that generates other waves by producing Overtones. Tomes rediscovered the Svara and could also explain why the “numbers” behind the Svara are the way they are.

The explanation can be found in the so called Highly Composite Numbers (HCN). The HCN are “social” numbers with many divisors. They represent the major “harmonic” connectors in the Universe. The HCN are the opposite of the “lonely” Prime Numbers who only contain themselves.

The structure behind the HCN is self-referencial and is based on the numbers 2, 3 and 5.

About the Cyclic Universe of Paul Steinhardt

The Cyclic Univere of Paul J. Steinhardt

The Cyclic Universe of Paul J. Steinhardt

Paul Steinhardt has created a new theory about the Universe based on the Four Forces of the Square and the Void in the Center. In his theory the Universe is Cyclic. It is expanding and contracting.

The expansion of the Universe ends when the Two Major Structures (-1,1) in the Universe, called Membranes or Branes, are in Balance with the Center, the Void (0).

The two Branes are higher dimensional flat surfaces that are in parallel. The Left and the Right Brains split into many similar Cell-like Structures. We live in one of the Cells of the Cyclic Universe.

When the Universe expands the constraints of the Flat Surface (the Lo Shu Square) create a huge tension and the flat surfaces start to Ripple. The Ripples are waves that are closed in themselves (loops).

When you use your imagination you can see that the Cyclic Universe of Paul Steinhardt has a lot in common with the ancient theories of India and China with only one difference.

In the Ancient theories the creator of the Universe was “Aware of Itself” in the new theories Awareness is a Feed-Back-Loop, a Cycle.

About Ancient Spirituality and Modern Science

This blog started with the Ancient Spiritual Indian Concept of the Svara , the Wave of Life. It ends with the Modern Material Cyclical Universe of Paul Steinhardt.

In between I have tried to show that the old theories of the Self-Aware Universe and the new theories of the Endless Feed-Back Loops in Our Universe have a lot in common.

The Ancient Spiritual Scientists developed a Theory of Everything based on the principle of the Fractal Universe (“So Above, So Below“).

If the Universe is a Fractal Structure,  the only thing the Modern Sciences have to do is to find the Right Level of Observation (Cells, Body, Family/Group, Culture, State, Earth, ..) of the Fractal Expansion of our Universe and the Same Laws will appear again and again.

The Levels in our Universe

The Levels in our Universe (Calculated by Ray Tomes)

About the Good, the Bad and the Nothing

If the Good and the Bad are Standing Waves that move With the Clock and Against the Clock it will be much more easier to determine what is Right and what is Wrong (Left).

With the Clock moves With the Flow. It generates new structures until the Limits of the Universe are reached.

Against the Clock moves Against the Flow. It destructs new structures until the Limits of the Universe are reached.

The Bad wants to Control Everything. It Fears the Good and the Future.

The Bad does not (want to )understand that The Good and the Bad are moving to the same Destination, The Nothing.

The Good gives us Joy, Pleasure and Exitement.

The Bad moves Back in Time. It wants to restore what was already there. Its final aim is the Zero, Empty Space.

The Good moves Forwards in Time. It creates new Perspectives about a Bright New Future. Its final aim is Every Thing, the Many, Infinite Space filled with an Infinite Amount of Forms.

The Bad and the Good move Back and Forth around an Unknowable Center, the Nothing, that makes Every Thing possible.

Some day the One and the Infinite, will merge, into the Impossible. When this happens the Nothing will return for a very short  (1/∞) moment.

LINKS

About the Law of Resonance

About the History of the Laws of Nature (The Website of Milo Wolff. It contains everything you want to know about the history of the concept of the Standing Wave).

Why Matter is a Standing Wave

About the Svara (This Website  contains a (big) Complete Book written in 1894 about the Ancient Theory of the Svara.  A Must Read, when you want to understand Ancient Physics).

About the Harmonic Theory of Ray Tomes

About the Experiments of Michelson and Morley

Why God is a Topologist

About Pauli and Quantum Mechanics

About the Cyclic Universe

About the Lo Shu Square

About the Trinity

About Infinity

About the Empty Set

About the Good, the Bad and the Nothing

Monday, July 5th, 2010

Sometimes You want do the Good Thing and the result is a Bad Thing.

Sometimes You start an Activity with a Good Intention but the Activity runs completely Out of Hand because You were unable to Predict all the effects.

Sometimes an Activity starts with a Good Intention and Ends with a Good Result but much later You discover that you have started a Chain of Activities and the Result of the Chain is Bad.

Good and Bad are Context Dependent.

Look at this little Story:

A Chinese farmer awoke one morning to find a horse grazing in one of his fields. Since nobody came to claim the horse, the farmer used it to plow his uncultivated land. “What a good this horse is for you,” said his neighbor. “We’ll see,” said the farmer. Soon after, the farmer’s 18-year-old son was riding the horse when it shied at a snake. The youth fell off and broke his leg. “What an evil this is for you,” said his neighbor. “We’ll see,” said the farmer. Soon after, the warlord’s agents combed the village, conscripting young men for his army. Because of his broken leg, the farmer’s son was not taken. “What a good this is for you,” said his neighbor. “We’ll see,” said the farmer.

The Devil in the TAROT

The Tarot Card the Devil: The Devil, the God Pan, is the Force of Desire. On the Card we can see that Humans are able to Lift the Chains of Desire.

About the Golden Rule of Ethics

The big problem is that we attach a Value to the Intentions or the Consequences of an Activity and this Value has just two Names named: “Good” or “Bad“.

When the E-Valuation is “Good” we Feel Good. When the E-Valuation is “Bad” we feel Anger, Sadness, Guilty, Depressed or Worse. The Names of the Evaluation trigger the Emotions Deeply.

Most of the time we feel Guilty without any need to feel Guilty because we are not in Control of Everything that Happens.

The Ego, our Identity, is not able to stand the Lack of Control it has on the Outside World.

Humans need the “Illusion of Control” to sustain their Identity. Deep within they don’t want to believe that Other Human Beings or the Forces of Nature (“the Acts of God“) are also Active Agents.

The Science that is trying to define the Good and the Bad is called Ethics.

Ethics is the Philosophical Study of  “the Moral Value of Human Conduct and of the Rules and Principles that ought to govern it” or “the principles concerning the distinction between Right and Wrong or Good and Bad Behavior’

The most important Rule of Ethics is the so called Golden Rule : ” We should do to others what we would want others to do to us” or “do not do to others what you would not like to be done to you“.

The Golden Rule of Empathy and Forgiving is the most important Ethical Rule in many Cultures all around the World.

The Golden Rule uses the Principle of Self-Reference. Something is Applied on Itself.

When we apply the Principle of Self-Reference to the Bad, we move into the Domain of Lady Justice.

Lady Justice

Lady Justice: An Eye for an Eye (Revenge)

About Justice and Revenge

When Bad People don’t want to use the Good Golden Rule some cultures use the Rule “An Eye for an Eye” (Revenge) to do Justice to the Bad Ones. When you do Bad to a Person, the Bad Behavior is Applied to Yourself. “Eye for an eye” is used to make Bad People Aware of the Good Golden Rule.

The interesting point is that the combination of the Golden Rule and the “Eye for an Eye“-Rule  (called Tit-for-Tat) is the best way to solve the Iterated Prisoners Dilemma, a Chain of Conflicts.

Strangely enough The Good (now called Cooperation)  is Accomplished when you just Imitate the Behavior of the Others.

There is One (fatal) Exception to the Strategy of Tit-for-Tat. If you want to operate On Your Own and You think You don’t need the Others to Survive the best Way to Operate is to Betray Every Body. Bad Behavior provides you with a Huge Economic Win but also with a  Huge Social Loss.

When you Betray the others, You have To Protect Yourself for the Revenge of the Others.

To Compensate your Social Loss You have to Buy the Others (Lawyers, Mercanaries, ) or (worse) you have to Force the Others with Violence to Cooperate with You.  In the first Case you lose a lot of Money and in the last case the Amount of Revenge increases exponentially.

To Survive you always have to Balance the Social (“the Other“) and the Economic (“the Ego“). The “easy way’ is to do the Good and the “difficult way“ is to do the Bad.

Cooperation is a highly Effective and Efficient Method to accomplish the Good for Your Self and the Others because Good Behavior attracts Good Behavior and Bad Behavior attracts  Bad Behavior.

Seven Virtues

The Seven Virtues

About the Seven Virtues.

To do Good or to do Justice you have to Apply the Same to the Same because The Same Attracts the Same.

The Same not only Attracts the Same. The Same Repels the Not-the-Same.

The Same Law:  ”Look-A-Likes Like Each Other and Repel the Organisms that are not looking alike” (called Genetic Similarity Theory) also explains Evolution. This rule was detected by Charles Darwin when he wanted to explain the huge amount of Cooperation in Nature.

When you Apply the Same to the Same (Self-Reference) it generates a Fractal Structure in which the Same Structure Repeats Itself on Every Level (“As Above, So Below“).

It Looks Like there is a Universal Moral Law that explains  Behavior on Every Level of the Universe.

Some Scientists believe the Moral Laws are Eternal Truths. This believe has a long History that goes back to Ancient Rome (Cicero), Ancient Greece (Plato, Socrate) and Ancient Egypt (Ma’at).

During the Renaissance (“Rebirth“) the Moral Principles of Rome, Greece, and Egypt were reborn and transformed into Moral Systems based on the Four (Prudence, Justice, Temperance and Fortitude) or the Seven Virtues (The Four Virtues & Faith, Hope and Love).

When you understand and apply the Universal Moral Laws you use the Virtue of Prudence (Wisdom, Knowledge).  To Apply the Golden Lesson you need to have Courage and a Strong Will, the Virtue of Fortitude. When you keep the three Virtues (Wisdom, Justice and Will) in the right Balance you are practising the virtue of Temperance.

They last three virtues are derived out of the First Letter to the Corinthians written by Paul:

“If I speak in the tonguesof men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal. If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. If I give all I possess to the poor and surrender my body to the flames,but have not love, I gain nothing.

Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres.

Love never fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away. For we know in part and we prophesy in part, but when perfection comes, the imperfect disappears. When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I put childish ways behind me. Now we see but a poor reflection as in a mirror; then we shall see face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known. And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love”.

Balance of Ma'at

The Golden Rule of Ma'at (Forgiving and Empathy)

About the Temperance of Ma’at

Ma’at (later  named Sophia ) was one of the (3×3) Nine Egyptian Neteru . She represented the Virtues of Truth, Balance, Justice, and Order. Just like Lady Justice she uses a Scale.

The dead person’s Heart was placed on the scale, balanced by the Feather of Ma’at. If the Heart weighed the same as the Feather of Ma’at, the deceased was allowed to go on to the Eternal Afterlife and gained Immortality (Heaven).

If the deceased had been found not to have followed the concept of Ma’at during his life (if he had lied or cheated or killed or revenged) his heart was devoured by a demon and he died the final death and was Reincarnated (Hell).

The Human,  the Talking Baboon,  had to start all over again to Learn and Apply the most important Golden Lesson of the Universe.

The way of Ma’at was to Act out of the Center of Conscioussness, the Heart. Acting out of the Heart is called the Virtue of Love.

Ma’at was also the God of Balance, Rythm and the Cycles. The Good and the not-Good moved the Cycles of the Universe.

The Good and the not-Good came out of the Same Source, the Void, the Sekhem, the Source of Infinite Potential and Love.

The Tree Faces of Shiva

The Tree Faces of Shiva (Creator, Destructor and Brahman (Void, Love, Infinite Potential))

About the Trinity of the Mind

In the Eastern (Gnostic, Egyptian, Indian, African, Mystic) Believe System the Good and the Bad are both created by the Demiurg (or the Logos, “In the beginning was the Word and Word was God“) one of the Creations of the Void. The Void exists outside our Level of Existence. The Void is a Mystery.

The Good and the not-Good, the Bad, are Complementary Opponents. Their Union is the Whole. They Share the Void, the Empty Set. The Empty Set contains Everything that is Impossible.

The Good and the Bad Move the Cycles of the Universe. They represent the E-Motions (Expansion (Desire, Creation) and Contraction (Control, Destruction)) of the Void.

The Good and the Bad Cooperate by Competing to bring the Lonely Souls back to the Void.

The Good, the Creator, and the Bad, the Destructor, are Two Faces of the Same Entity, the Spiritual Trinity, who came out of the Nothing.

The connection with the Void can be found in the Middle (the Golden Mean) of the Body, the Heart, the Link between the Triangel of the Material World (the Body) and the Triangel of the Spiritual World (The Mind).

The Heart, the connection with the Void,  is the Seat of Consciousness. It is also the Seat of the Emotions (Soul).

When the Heart Weights like a Feather, the Upper (Mind) and the Lower Trinity (the Body) connected by the Emotions are in Balance.

The Bad and the Good are Attractors. When the Attraction becomes too High you get Addicted to the Bad or the Good. A huge Expansion is compensated by a huge Contraction to Balance the Cycle. When you want to avoid the Pain of Contraction you have to Balance your Life.

The Two Triangels with the Heart in the Middle are the Same As the Seven Chakra’s (2×3+1) and the Seven Virtues of the Renaissance.

The Seven Chakra’s together with the Spiritual Trinity are Similar to the Tree of Life, The Egyptian Pesedjet/Neteru and the Jewish Sephirot (3×3+1).

The Seven Chakra's

The Seven Chakra's

About the Trinity of the Body

When Body and Mind are in Balance, the Ideas of the Spiritual Trinity are received by the Trinity of the Mind and are Implemented by the Trinity of the Material Body in the Material World (Earth).

When the Mind is not connected to the Body and the Spirit, the Ideas become Abstractions (only Words) or the Impulses of the Desire of the Body Takes over Control.

When the Mind is not connected to the Spirit Innovation stops and Old Ideas (the Seeds) Repeat Themselves All the Time. The Human becomes a Machine Caught in the Wheel of the Good and the Bad.

The One, the Spiritual Trinity, who is The Void, the Good (the Creator) and the Bad (the Destructor), uses the Strategy of Tit-for-Tat, the Trickster.

The Trinity Imitates the Behavior of the Humans or We the Humans Copy their Behavior (“We are made in the Image of God“)!

The One wants to make the Humans Aware of the Fact that the only way to Survive the Infinite Chain of Conflicts (Dilemma’s, Contradictions), which is Life, is to Cooperate (Live out of the Heart) with the Infinite Potential, the God of Love.

Implosion

The Big Implosion

About Destruction

The Golden Rule of Ethics tries to avoid the Negative Emotions, the Emotions of Loss. It wants to Create a situation were Everybody is Happy.

The Golden Rule of Ethics helps a lot to Evaluate our Intentions and the Consequences of our Intentions but the effect of our Collective Actions on the Bigger Structures is almost Unpredictable.

It would help a lot if we could Expand our View from the Emotional Human Other to “all the Other Life-Forms” that are in Existence.

In this case we have to Understand the Effects of our Behavior on the Negative Emotions of the Bacteria, the Plants, the Animals, Earth and even the Universe.

It is not clear if our Emphatic System is able to Imagine the Inner World of the other Life Forms.

If the Act of Destruction is felt the same by all these Organisms it will be simply impossible to Live.

We have to Destroy Others to stay Alive.

The Universe Destroys to Stay Alive.

The Destruction of the Old is needed to Create the New.

At this moment we are confronted with a World-Wide Crisis on many Levels of Existence. The Collective Behavior of the Human Race is Destroying our Environment.

The Collective Desire to Create and Expand has reached the Limits of the System we Live in.

It is almost impossible to Control this Expansion. The Control Systems have also reached their Limits.

The Two Complementary Forces, The Good and the Bad, Expansion and Contraction, Desire and Control,  have both reached their Outer Limits.

If they both reach the Limits the Expanding Balloon of our Outer Universe will Explode in Itself (Implode) and move through the Void to another State. There is Simply no Space Left to Expand.

If this happens the Expansion of the Outer World will be Transformed into an Expansion of the Inner World.

The Big Bang, the Big Explosion, the Sublime Act of Creation, will Repeat itself and the Big Implosion will Create a New Universe.

The Flow of Time

The Flow of Time

About Not-Acting

Wu Wei (Not Acting, Acting without Effort) is an important concept of Taoism.

When you want to apply this concept you have to Know Everything There is to Know about the Cycles and the Forces of Nature. Wu Wei is only possible when you have aquired the Knowledge and the Wisdom of Ma’at/Sophia.

Most of the Time the Power of the Cycle is so Strong that it is impossible for Us to influence the Flow of Time.

Sometimes on a Rare Moment on a Special Place the Cycles can be Influenced.

Only at that Special Magic Moment the Human is able to do the Good or the Bad.

At all the other Moments History Takes its Course. The Good and Bad Forces, the Acts of God, Act without our Consent on the Higher Levels of Our Universe. It is a Waste of Time and Energy to Oppose these Forces.

Most of the Time we are Pushed by the Forces of Nature. We Act without Effort.

In Ancients Times the Forces were called Gods, Angels or Devils. At this moment we Name these Forces with Different Names (Gravity, the Strong and Weak Force and the Electro-Magnetic Force) but the Effect of the Forces on our Field of Existence stays the Same.

At a Magic Moment Everything, even the Impossible, is Possible. At such a moment we are ”in Tune with“  the Empty Set, the Void, the Sekhem, the Tao, the Field, the Love, the Mystery, the Unspoken.

The Emotions of Loss are created when we Lose Something.

If you Own Nothing You have Nothing to Lose.

If you Expect Nothing, Every Thing will Happen.

When people see things as beautiful,
ugliness is created.
When people see things as good,
evil is created.

Being and non-being produce each other.
Difficult and easy complement each other.
Long and short define each other.
High and low oppose each other.
Fore and aft follow each other
.

Therefore the Master
can act without doing anything
and teach without saying a word.
Things come her way and she does not stop them;
things leave and she lets them go.
She has without possessing,
and acts without any expectations.
When her work is done, she takes no credit.
That is why it will last forever
.

(Tao Te Ching,  Chapter II)

LINKS

About Game Theory and Ethics

About Cybernetics and Ethics

About Social Balance Theory

About Addiction

How to Resolve a Conflict

About the Seven Virtues

About the Illusion of Control and other Human Biases

About Morality and Ethics

About Ethical Dilemma’s

About Tit-for-Tat

About Tit-for-Tat and World Politics

About Genetic Similarity Theory

About the Renaissance

About Ma’at and the Measure of the Heart

About the Nine Egyptian Concepts (the Neteru)

About Plato and the New Harmony

About Socrate and the Golden Rule

About the Demiurg

About the Mystic Experience

About the Heart

About the Void

About the Sekhem

About the Trinity

About the Trickster

About Old Fashioned Thinking

Monday, December 21st, 2009

Many thousands of years ago human life was a far different experience to that which we enjoy today. Life for our ancient forefathers was a mixture of wonder and fear.

aboriginalsThe interesting point to notice is that the human body has not changed since the old days. The things that have changed are our environment and our language.

We see objects our ancestors could not see and therefore we talk about concepts our ancestors were not aware of.

Although our concepts have changed the way we think has not changed.

Thinking is a bodily process. Our muscles talk and our brain processes a huge amount of data.

Current science is able to look into the living body to observe the process of thinking. Scientists think that thinking has a lot to do with seeing. A picture paints a thousand words when the objects (nouns) and the relations (verbs) between the objects are named.

Our ancient ancestors saw other ancestors, animals, rivers, mountains, trees, plants, stars, the sun and the moon. Nature was all around them and Nature was the source of their reasoning.

When you look at nature for a long time you come aware of all kinds of patterns. The Sun rises and disappears every day. The Moon shows itself in the same stages. The plants and the animals act according to these patterns. Observing Nature during day and night generates a theory of Nature and because Nature is cyclic the ancient theory of nature was a cyclic theory.

moonOur ancestors observed short and long term cycles with their eyes and created a theory of everything just like the current scientists are trying to do.

The human has not changed and his ability to define and verify a theory has not changed also.

In our time we have developed highly advanced instruments to probe in the big and the small structures of Nature. We are able to look at the beginning of the Universe and we are able to look at the very small structures of Matter.

Just like our ancient ancestors we use the data of our new eyes, the instruments, to formulate a theory. The big question is if our theory looks a lot different from the theory of our ancestors.

The images our eyes detect are interpreted by the rest of our body. Sometimes we look with our Imagination (Daydreaming, Fantasy). Sometimes we look with our Emotions. We love or dislike what we see.  Sometimes we look with our Expectation and see what we want to see  (Verification) or don’t want to see (Falsification). The objective instruments of science project our subjective theory, our belief-system, upon our reality.

Many people would say that we have advanced in our knowledge of our reality. They believe history is a progressive process. It always moves up because we are learning all the time.

Sri Yantra Temple

Our ancestors would say that history is a cyclic process. It moves Up and Down. Civilizations rise and disappear. History repeats itself all the time.

The proof of their theory is visible everywhere we go but we ignore the evidence. We, the Western people, believe our civilization will stay for ever because our supreme technology is able to solve every problem we will encounter.

The ancient people used different symbols, concepts and names to describe what they observed. We, the Western people, don’t spend much time to understand their theory because our theory of history proves that it is a waste of time to look back and learn from their experience and their comparable thinking process.

The most advanced theory of Physics is called String Theory. It was based on the so called Beta Function of Euler which describes the behavior of the string of a violin. The people that started the quest for the ultimate theory of physics highly believed in the harmony of the spheres, a concept promoted by the ancient scientist Pythagoras. Pythagoras was educated at the university of Heliopolis in Egypt.

Interesting enough the most promising variant of String Theory is called Loop Theory. It supposes that strings make close loops around flat surfaces called Branes. Just like our ancestors the creators of String Theory strongly believe in the concept of the closed cycle and there is a reason for this.

The simple reason is that you have to close our Universe somewhere. Our Universe is very big but there is a horizon, an end of the Universe, which is expanding into the nothing.

The smallest particles we can imagine also have a boundary and this boundary is closing the particle. Closing a system needs something that is closed in itself, a circle, a cycle or every other concept that returns in itself.

ouroborosOne of the most important ancient concepts of closure is the Ouroboros. It represents a snake that is eating itself. If you imagine the eating snake you will see that this snake compresses itself into a point and finally disappears into the nothing.

The modern mathematical term for the ultimate vanishing point is a Singularity, a hole in space and time, sometimes called a black hole.

A black hole is really the entrance to the singularity. It attracts matter in our space while the white hole ejects matter in a different space. The Ouroboros disappears but comes back in another world and starts to expand again. Modern theory supposes that our Universe has expanded out of the Singularity and will move back into this singularity, just like the concept of the Ouroboros is showing.

The ancient concepts are not of our days but they describe the same theory in a completely different way because the old scientists where using Nature as the Source of their concepts.

If the old scientists came with a comparable theory using different terms the big question is how they did it. They could not use the Large Hadron Collider to observe the small and the Hubble Telescope to observe the big. Their only instrument was the eye.

Mythic

As Above, So Below

The ancient scientists used the rule “As Above, So Below” to make things easy for them.

If the old scientists would be asked to explain this statement in our terminology they would certainly make use of the concept of recursion. Recursion shows itself in the Russian dolls that contain dolls that contain dolls. The ancient scientist believed that the same rules repeat on every level of the Universe.

They also believed that every system is closed in itself. The Big Structures are connected to the Small Structures.

The point of positive Infinity is connected to the point of negative Infinity. The Up, the Down, Forwards and Backwards move around in a pattern called the Moebius Ring (the Symbol of Inifinity). In higher dimensional space this pattern transforms into the Klein Bottle, the basic structure behind Alchemy.

If you understand one level you understand every level.

In 1982, Benoît B. Mandelbrot formulated the same theory in his book The Fractal Geometry of Nature. In this book he coined the term “fractal” to name his recursive structures. At this moment many important physicists are convinced we live in a fractal universe.

The theory of the fractal universe implies that when you observe carefully with the human eye on our level of existence you are able to formulate a theory about every level of the Universe.

The old scientists went a little bit further and stated that our Inner Universe is also an expression of the Outer Universe (“As Within, So Without”). They united physics and psychology in one Theory of Everything.

Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was a follower of the famous Sigmund Freud until he met Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (1900-1951). Wolfgang Pauli was a genius and devoted much of his time to Physics. In 1945 he received the Nobel Price for Physics. At that time Albert Einstein called him his intellectual successor.

Wolfgang Pauli started to visit Carl Jung around 1930. At that time his life was in a terrible mess and Jung started to analyze his dreams just like Sigmund Freud had told him to do.

The Dream of the World Clock

The Dream of the World Clock

Jung detected many ancient themes in the dreams of Pauli. One of the most famous dreams of Pauli is the dream of the World Clock“. This dream is a modern version of the dream of Ezekiel and the Tetramorph.

The dreams of Pauli were highly related to the hermetic alchemists of the Renaissance (John Dee, Robert Fludd, Paracelcus).  The alchemists based their theories on the Ancient Egyptian Knowledge of Heliopolis.

Pauli and Jung started a life long collaboration to explore the bridge between the Inner World of Psychology and the Outer World of Physics.

Jung was also highly interested in what was called the Pauli Effect. Wolfgang Pauli’s life was full of strange and meaningful occurrences of Telekinesis. Objects in the surroundings of Pauli started to lift without any physical explanation.

Finally Jung and Pauli were convinced that the Dream World, the Unconsciousness, was the primal source of inspiration. They also believed that this highly unknown part of the inner world of the human being was able to affect the outer world by producing meaningful signs. The telekinetic effects of Pauli were created by his own Unconsciousness.

They even believed that the force behind human creativity, Spirit, created and sustained the outside material world of our senses.

Pauli was one of the creators of a weird theory called Quantum Mechanics. The predictions of this theory were verified with the instruments of science and proved to be right all the time. The theory was weird because it detected a strange duality in physical reality. Light showed itself as a particle and a wave at the same time.

yinyang

Male (White) and Female (Black) with the Black and White Hole

To explain this duality scientists moved far back in history and adopted the ancient Yin/Yang-concept as an explanation. This concept describes a constant cyclic movement of the Universe between two opposites, called Female and Male. When the two opposites are combined they are voided into Nothing. The three parts, Male, Female and the Void were called the Trinity.

The scientists of Quantum Mechanics proved that it was possible to influence this duality by the human mind of the observer when the two complementary parts of the mind unite and are voided. This happens when the human meditates or moves into trance.

In the meditative or trance state the brain resonates and entangels, becomes One, with the Electro-Magnetic Waves of Mother Earth, the Shumann Resonance, and the Waves of Life of the Universe.

In the strange terminology of Quantum Mechanics this state is called a Quantum Superposition and the union of the waves is called Quantum Entanglement. Quantum Entanglement moves with a speed much higher than the Speed of Light.

Sometimes the fragmented Tones of the Universe unite into one Symphony when the Strings of the many Violins are in Tune. Pythagoras, trained in ancient Heliopolis, explained the same thing a long time ago.

To explain Quantum Mechanics the scientists had to assume that our Universe is not the only Universe that is in existence. To solve the paradoxes they created the concept of the Parallel Universes. The only bridge between these universes is the Hole in Time/Space, the Singularity, which was there before the Duality came into existence.

HeartChakra

The Symbol of the Heart

The old scientists agreed on the number of seven parallel Universes. They are a combination of two Trinities, the upside Triangle of the Spirit and the downside Triangle of the Material World.

They called these Universes Heavens and Hells with our Universe, the Universe of the Heart,  in the Middle.

They believed that the Shaman could travel between these universes in Space and Time with the help of his Light Body.

They also believed that the Human Soul, the Light Body, travels these universes in between the time of reincarnation.

In our Western World the Great Spirit of Creation is something many people consider a very old fashioned concept. The funny thing is that at this moment the new scientists introduce the same concepts the ancient scientists were using but with a different name. The modern Material Universe and the old fashioned Spiritual Universe are merging. The only thing we don’t want to accept is that the source of our creation could be a conscious being.

The discussion about Human Consciousness is a very complex discussion. The main reason is that scientists don’t agree about the concept itself.

Consciousness is often confused with Intelligence. Intelligence is the ability to be creative, to find simple solutions for complex problems. Consciousness is the ability to be aware of your own actions. We need our Consciousness to learn from our mistakes. We need our Intelligence to create new solutions to make new mistakes to start learning again.

The Celtic Cross with the Four Forces and the Center, The Void, in the Middle.

The Celtic Cross with the Four Forces and the Center, The Void, in the Middle.

Most people believe that Humans are the only organisms on earth that are Intelligent and Conscious. They accept the possibility that somewhere in our huge universe a comparable situation exist where extraterrestrials live. This possibility increases with the day because our highly advanced instruments are now able to detect comparable planets orbiting comparable suns in the galaxy.

The big problem is still the speed of light. According to the relativity theory of Einstein this speed is the maximum speed to travel space. Our possible companions in the universe are so far away that will be impossible to communicate with them.

Our advanced science is solving this problem too. At this moment scientists believe that the singularity now called a wormhole could make it possible to shorten the distance in space. If they are right space/time-travel will be soon a fact of life.

Some people believe animals are Intelligent and Conscious. They feel that their cat or dog or horse looks and acts a lot like the human being. Because of this believe they treat their pets just like human beings.

Scientists are already able to construct artificial humans and pets.  They are convinced it will not take a long time to produce artificial human beings that are not distinguishable from the normal human being.

Scientists are desperately trying to define a difference between a conscious and intelligent machine and a conscious and intelligent human being and they are not succeeding at all. Soon they have to admit that their experiments with artificial life show that consciousness and intelligence are the properties of a fractal system.

ancient game

The Game of Life is played on the Square

The old scientists already believed that our universe is a highly intelligent conscious fractal machine put in motion by a creator to experience all the possibilities of his own potential. The creation machine, the Matrix, gave the creator the opportunity to experience itself, to become fully conscious.

We, the Humans, are an enfolding of the Creator into a deeper level of existence. We are not created by his image we are in his image. If we look deep in the mirror of ourselves we are able to see the creator.

The old scientists even believed they had broken the code of the software of the creation machine and therefore could become an immortal being, the creator of a new parallel universe, themselves.

Consciousness is created when the self encounters the self by a short or a long feed-back loop.

If this is true the Cycles are there to become aware of the machine and to break the code of the software of the machine to become a fully creative entity. When the self encounters and accepts the mirror of the self they merge into the nothing, the state of the Universe before the singularity came into existence.

The Mystery

The Mystery

The ancient scientists did not believe that the state of the Nothing was not existent. They believed that the primal state of creation was pure potential. It was a highly fluctuating state called the zero-point-field by our scientists and the Mystery by the old scientists. The zero-point-field generates everything that is possible.

It produces mysteries, things we cannot imagine, because we as parts of the enfolding are unable to imagine every thing that could exist. Our bodily pattern recognizer, the Brain, is not capable of doing this. Imagining every thing would turn our brain into a state of pure madness.

Madness and sickness is a state of the body ancient and modern humans have experienced through history. This state has many names in our current highly specialized society. The old scientists believed that Spirit was able to help people to become sane and healthy again.

They believed in independent conscious beings with a positive and a negative attitude. The Trinity and its many enfoldings on different levels (Archangels, Angels) could be asked to erase the negative powers to let the love of the Spirit heal the body and the soul.

humors

The Four Humors, the Four Forces of the Inner World

The ancient scientists named the force that heals the Force of Life. They believed in four other forces called the Four Elements (Air, Fire, Earth and Water) with the Force of Life, the Void, in the Center.

The first two Forces, Male and Female, are part of the first Trinity, the Spiritual World. Male and not-Male are voided in the Void. They are opposites just like expanding space, Gravity (Fire, Heaven) and not-expanding, compressing, space, the Strong Nuclear Force (Earth). Its main job is to hold together the subatomic particles of the kernel of the Atom. In the beginning God, the Void, created the Heavens and the Earth.

On the second level of Enfolding of the Trinity, the Material World, four combinations of Male and Female are possible. Two of them (Male/Male = Male, Gravity, Female/Female = Female, the Strong Force), are part of the Spiritual World and repeat their existence in the Material World.

The two other forces, the Electro Magnetic Force (“Let there be light”) of Life and the Weak Force (Radioactive Decay, Darkness) of Death are a mixture of both Male and Female and are therefore oscillating forces. They are compressing and expanding and therefore look like waves (Water and Air). These forces are also voided in the Void which shows that the potential of the Void, the Force of Life, is available at every level of existence.

The ancient system of Physics was a highly logical, mathematical system just like our current theory of Physics is. It contained just two concepts expansion (Female) and compression (Male) and showed that the spiraling vortex of creation was a repeating combination of the Expansion of just two simple dynamic concepts that were in a balance all the time. They knew that in the end everything would be Compressed to return to the Mysteriouss creator, the Void, the State of Infinite Potential.

srichakra

Sri Yantra, the Machine that generates the Matrix

The ancient scientists used the terminology of Nature to explain their theory to the masses. They also used highly abstract geometric theories to calculate the movements of the levels of the fractal universe. These theories were only available for the initiates of their secret societies.

The main reason was that they were afraid of misuse of the power of their knowledge. Science was not only related to the game of invention but it was also a state of mind. Ethics, Physics, Art and Religion were expressions of the same fractal structure of the Universe, that originated out of the Love, the Attraction of the Void,  the First Creator, for his own Mirrors.

The force that heals is still there and science is again on the verge of the rediscovery of ancient practises. The weird science of Quantum Mechanics proved the power of the mind and the force of life returned when the Mystery of the Void was transformed into the zero-point-field.

The power of the mind explains the placebo-effect feared by scientists who want to cure the body with chemical structures that exist on a very low level of the enfolding of the fractal universe. The pharmaceutical industry is using conscious entities (chemical forces) with little power while the powerful forces of the Archangels are still there.

The believe of the scientists in the healing power of nature itself has disappeared. They wanted to beat Nature with brains that are part of Nature itself. They wanted to beat their selves instead of uniting the male and female parts of their brains to become whole again.

This blog is a chapter of a new book I am writing together with Steven Strong about the ancient knowledge of the Aboriginals. According to their stories one part of humanity decided a long time ago to stay close to nature.

trickster raven

The Trickster in the Dream of the World Clock

In the dreamstate they saw the consequences of the steady increase of dominance of technology when the humans would start with agriculture. They believed Nature would take care of them when they lived according to the Dreaming. I think they were right.

The move from hunter/gatherer to farmer produced the advanced civilizations of the World. Everyone of these civilizations did not survive the strange behaviors of Mother Nature, the Trickster, also called the Demiurg, represented by the Raven in the World Clock of Pauli.

I also think they forgot one thing. They forgot that the Cycles of the Wheel of Fortune of the Matrix we live in are a Machine that moves Back and Forth. It move far away from the Void into the Darkness to return back into the Light of the Mysterie.

The ancient scientists could calculate the short and long cycles of history and predicted a new Golden Age. They incorporated the predictions in their stories, buildings and artifacts. They knew that their scientific ancestors would try to explain their weird theories.

They knew that one day ancient science and modern science would converge because the cycles predicted that.

They knew that independent minds would return in every step of the cycle to repeat the same story again and again with different words and different concepts. They knew that history repeats itself all the time.

The only thing that is left for us is to take the consequences of our current understanding of our Universe.

Do we want to fight Nature with our technology until Nature fights back to create a new balance or do we want to return to the old knowledge of the Aboriginals and start again to cooperate with our Mother Earth.

The choice is yours.

LINKS

About Pythagoras

Will McWhinney: About Grammars of Engagement

Saturday, December 19th, 2009

This is a version of chapter Eight out of the never published book Grammers of Engagement of Will McWhinny. Will spend more that 10 years to write a new book that contained everything he learnt after writing Path of Change (1997).

Will worked with many people to test his texts and I was one of them. Will died before he could finish his book.

Will gave his versions to me to comment. I am sure Will has adapted this chapter later but I think it is still a very interesting document to read. I really don’t know if I am allowed to do this. I am afraid the whole book will never be published so I take the risk.

“There is only the dance”
T.S. Elliot

An idea, image, or model that has been configured and prepared for enunciation appears as a line of argument, questioning, or entreaty. My question is now, how do we use this enunciation to engage with others to achieve understanding, response, or compassion? The simplistic answer is to get them to be like us, to render both us and them more equally informed and caring. We do this by coupling.

We induce neural paths in the minds of others (or equally in data paths in other systems) that are linked into similar networks of idea. We do it by mounting our propositions in step with the others’ routines and by knowing when the other has completed a cycle of embodiment and is ready for the next cycle of muscle firings.

We learn of their accomplishment when we get a response, “yes, I get what you are saying.” But more accurately, when we hear “I have established enunciating loops that seem to match those that generated your message.” This chapter is about the processes of coupling and the encompassing system that can attain such results. It is about how we get others to be more like us and who ‘we’ become when that similarity is achieved.

In the prior chapters, I articulated the role of coupling in communication and the elements of an enunciation that configure a simple image or model into a grammatical flow of words or symbols. Here I am concerned with the engagement with other systems, with designing enunciations that couple a specific target audience, and with mechanisms to reflectively adjust and augment responses to the audience as a conversation evolves. And when these concerns have surfaced, I find I am back to reflecting on the system that has emerged. I am looking for the meta-language with which we explore the engagements that separate us from the silence we left in the Garden of Eden.

Communication has the overt purpose of transferring information, but its over-all effect is paradoxical. The primary effect is to unite us, at least in understanding if not in compassion. It also has a second effect, making the meta-system of which we are a part more discriminating, more constrained in our expectations, and thus different from the unincorporated environment. Every act of engagement increases the complexity of the meta-system and in doing so increases its ability to engage with others.

It is as though humanity’s task is to incorporate the universe within our meta-system and to internalize all its differentiations, thereby collecting its fragmentation back into a oneness fully aware of what we bring back to Eden. We go about this task by increasing our differentiation to develop the requisite internal variety to match that of the Oneness we would approach. As is often the case we search for variety while reaching for unity and search for oneness while enriching the variety of our worlds. Coupling is the vehicle with which we maintain rhythm and create meaning. It forms the dual with the linear conduit model of communication and an alternative construction to the grammatical development described in the prior chapter.

Entrainment

All communication arises through coupling. All communications are dances that coordinate the rhythmic processes shared among the engaging systems. “Communication is not a transmission of information, but rather a coordination of behavior among living organisms through mutual structural coupling.” Coupling, the instrument of coordination, is established by the physics of exchange and by traditions that associate both human relations and communications with music: harmony, rhythm, tone and tune.

In the 1960’s, William Condon of Boston University School of Medicine pioneered the empirical study of communication as coupling. In the microanalysis of a few seconds of film he was astonished to find how the voice and bodily movements of speaker and listener were coordinated within intervals as short as 20 milliseconds. Condon introduced the term entrainment to describe the coupled behavior. He noted that:

Communication is thus like a dance, with everyone engaged in intricate and shared movements across many subtle dimensions, yet all strangely oblivious that they are doing so.

The phenomenon of entrainment in both subtle and obvious forms is widely recognized. One needs to go beyond its observation to explicate how the coupling is achieved.

Awareness of the other

Coupling begins with getting the attention of other organisms, or more accurately, with distracting the organisms from other engagements so they are able to discern and respond to this engagement. This task I label gaining awareness. Second, by the rhythm of the exchange has be enunciated in a way that the participants can join in the coming and going of exchanges following the pace set by the parties forming and returning messages. And third, the pace itself is enhanced and comes to be preferred by including features in a message that enable the involved systems to anticipate the messages. Later in the chapter I discuss redundancy, attribution, and chaining of ideas. These processes operate in the middle ground between silence and where coordination among participants enables them to notice and incorporate novelty.

That we can communicate with other beings comes from the presumption we are very much like those others, that their receiving apparatus is much like our sending apparatus. We receive actively, by initiating a neuromuscular sequence that mirrors the incoming message, but then inhibit its vocalization. It is a proxied movement, an echo that we comprehend by generating the actions that we would have taken to express the received communication.

The reinforcing behavior is made apparent on listening to a Japanese speaker responding to my request with a nod that I might interpret as indicating agreement. Rather, he is saying, “Yes, I have configured your message in my cognitive system.” “Yes,” simply indicates he shares an enunciation. Awareness of the other is the echo-within of ideas and images evoked. It is not the passive impression of a message on a tabula rasa, the blank slate on which the sensed world is inscribed in the way the philosophers Thomas Aquinas and John Locke envisioned. The echoing sequence is never a perfect copy. In the difference we establish the identity of ourselves and the existence of the other.

All engagements proceed by coupling, but the coupling vehicle is not always successful. Some are too slight, some too powerful, and some just right, allowing an acceptance and response to an enunciation. A coupling that is just right joins systems that link them into an encompassing system of focus and constraints that mutually inform. Much communication is not ‘just right.‘ I begin with those non-coupling conditions.

Too small—Perturbations

A recipient system may sense a slight perturbation as we would feel from the warmth of a fire or the brush of a stranger passing on a crowded street. The perturbation incites a dance at an energy level below that which can capture attention. It does not entrain the chemistry of a cell or establish a memory trace. It may ‘bend’ some neural loops but does not disturb their structures or alert a neighbor. Such minor perturbations are dissipated leaving the system to return to the undisturbed state.

They fail to produce what Maturana and Varela define as structural coupling—their impact on the autopoietic organization of the recipient system is seemingly negligible. We cannot say that these ‘too small’ perturbations have a zero effect for there are couplings beyond the range of human sensitivities that may eventually change the involved systems; the spectrum of potential couplings is vast beyond our comprehension.

Every message induces myriad whorls entraining myriad elements of the complex living structures. Every entrained element of a message adds complexity to the receiving system—wider connections, a broader coupling among neuro-motor loops, and more capacity to respond to the environment.

Too Large—Overloads

Highly energetic perturbations overload a system, tearing apart the autocatalytic loops that hold its definition. Too much energy bifurcates the stable basins of a system’s memory and ultimately violates its autopoietic identity. The overly energetic perturbations leave open non-reflecting fragments of nodes: neurons, bits of stories, and social customs. These fragmented networks are no longer able to hold meanings or link to memory traces.

Short of total destruction, strong perturbation will wipe out the fine structure of a receiving system, leaving it only able to operate in those sequences enforced by the invasive perturbation. To protect the networks of connections, electrical and mechanical systems have features to handle ‘over-modulation.’

With appropriate design, they digitize signals to compress the spectrum, thereby allows the message to be accepted. Human systems have a variety of means to block or censor invasive signals that violate our senses and psyches. Some at the physiological level block the energy that carries the messages; others receive, understand and reject the overwhelming impact. Blocking and the use of censorship disconnects us from the environment and preempts the discrimination they would our systems had more capacity.

Just right—Entrainment

‘Just right’ communication work because it allows systems to exchange energy, thus information, through entrainment. They dance to a just right message. The communication follows from exchanges that take place as the systems draw each other toward a common resonant mode. Systems communicate in the process of being more similar, approaching a harmonious state at least in the domain of the communication. Entrainment stops short of perfect harmony. With perfect harmony there is no exchange. ‘Just right’ is becoming close to harmonizing.

The process of coming close to harmonizing is visible in an old example. Automobiles and farm machinery once had clutches. These clutches consisted of two plates, one attached to the driver motor, the other attached to the wheels, thrasher, or rotary saw. When the operator ‘let in the clutch’ the two plates moved flat up against each other. As the clutch ‘comes in,’ the driver plate begins to transfer energy to the follower plate getting thus it to turn.

At first, the clutch slips and most of the power goes to grabbing, which produces heat. Increasingly the driving plate turns the follower. With full ‘letting in,’ the two turn together. There is no more heating; they form a unit with no further visible communications. The coupling established at the molecular level joins the material of the driver and follower plates in transmitting power to the wheels and cutting blades. This clutching sequence is a model of entrainment.

We can recognize similar entrainment sequences in many other situations: a spoon stirring batter in a bowl, cellular protein molecules latching onto antibodies, two persons entering into conversation, and 100,000 people being captured by Marion Anderson singing God Bless America at the Lincoln Memorial. Viewed as a physical process, each situation exemplifies a tuning of electromagnetic circuits to one another. Plates, proteins, people, and cell telephones that engage in ‘just right’ transfers of energy between the systems.

First, one system is the driver and then the other responses, establishing an exchange among neighbors as they ‘clutch.’ In living systems the dance evokes memory traces, establishes new couplings, and forms new basins of dynamic equilibrium. Approaching entrainments produces learnings, reinforces existing organizations, and establishes new channels of communication that are self -sustaining. Entrainment is a reflective process; it couples, but it also communicates what is different between the involved elements.

In entraining, each system becomes aware of the other in a rhythmic exchange of energy as they pull each other toward synchrony. It is safe to say that living things feel the pull into a larger orbit of the exchanging set. In the movement toward resonance the pull, thus the feeling and energy exchange grow and achieve a peak near full harmony. There, the merging parties experience the maximum exchange of affect. If a situation permits the elements to synchronize even further, the sense of exchange decreases.

The slipping clutch produces heat of exchange; when the clutch is locked it runs cool and no energy is dissipated. Similarly, two people walking out of step disturb each other, calling for attention. When they come to walk in unison their consciousness of each other’s walking disappears. When there is total harmony, there is no pull. When there is synchrony, systems dance in silence. It is in the approach to harmony that systems listen to each other and attend to their relations.

The dance of entrainment never produces perfect harmony. On the way to a stable harmony, interacting systems produce sub-harmonics, supra-harmonics, and varieties of non-linear ‘transients.’ Hums, whistles, and squeals arise as long as there is any dissonance and energy in the conjunction. Every conjunction reverberates over a spectrum of coupled sub-systems, calling up faint memories, reinforcing associations, and preparing possible responses.

Some elements of a communication slip into a system before there is conscious acceptance; our minds organize the grammatical structure of a message before in order that we will understand what has been said to us. Some may take months or years before they have reverberated across a cultural plain and broached a person or community’s consciousness; histories tell us what we could not see at the time of the events. Messages at the extremes that do not enter consciousness on their receipt may accumulate their impact to eventually dominate the involved systems; little anxieties and grand cultural myths form webs that constrain our lives. Our origins are ever present as Jean Gebser reminds with his book title (1985).

Acceptance and Inhibition

Action is the way of life. Movement, actual or proxied, is all that living things can do. The particular power of developed living things is the ability to generate and organize a variety of action sequences. That power is one definition of intelligence. The genius of the human species is not just generating meaningful sequences but managing them. We have developed the mechanisms for generating and growing sequences by accepting messages from the environment.

We have also learned how to not accept new or modified sequences by inhibiting their growth and expression. The choice to accept or reject is first built into our physiology that limits our sensory inputs to the classes I identified above as ‘just right.’ Within the acceptable range, messages initiate couplings that reverberate throughout the receiving system. On engagement with its environment, every biological or organizational system, experiences a cascade of dances that initiate responsive neuromuscular sequences. This effluence has to be managed to produce responses and create new neural paths.

Some messages receive immediate attention as triggers for muscular attention. These are accepted as the ‘stimulus that get a response.’ They produce immediate the firings of muscular sequences such as those that pulls the finger from the fire or rebalances a falling body. Such are the visible responses, but as with a struck bell, stimulus/response messages also reverberate across the system, releasing adrenaline, evoking memories of prior emergency responses, intruding in a hundred ways into the system’s organization. The example is physiological but the reader can appropriately extend it to the phenomena of social organizations.

Most exchanges penetrate beyond the reflex response. More often, they engage with the sensory cortex and fan out into the neuromuscular organs. Through coupling, messages set off reverberations in stored action sequences and confront the remembered sequences with novelty. Acceptance is like chiming; one message produces innumerable couplings and innumerable that compete for attention.

The breadth of the reception is a function of the richness of the receiving system: not everyone catches a double entendre or an in-joke told at a cocktail party, or does everyone have sufficient plasticity to modify existing sequences to learn. The acceptance process parallels the generation of utterances. Sounds evoke the sequences that would generate syllables; syllable sequences are combined to form word sequences; and words are formed into grammatical statements to be presented to the conscious mind. These are all proxied sequences that would become utterances; that is, the muscular sequences would be released if they were not inhibited.

Responses to the environment generate self-stimulating reverberations that tend to reinforce the entire cascade of couplings. Reinforcing habits of action and memories is functional for the organism, up to a point, but too much is destructive. Reinforcing can produce reverberations, that is, oscillations that come to dominant the neural system. Crick and Kock noted that without inhibition a system “would be thrown into uncontrolled oscillation, as in epilepsy,” to which Cotterill adds, “making every transaction with the environment a hazardous one. But even when effectively distributed reinforcement can be destructive, for it eventually overloads the system’s capacity and decreases the plasticity of the neuromuscular network. If the environmental response is allowed to cascade unrestrained throughout a biological organism it eventually closes off capacity to further adapt, that is, learn.

The overload condition is visible in many living species such as the giant pandas that can feed only on a particular species of bamboo. Coupling and the runaway responses to simulation occur in autocatalytic systems everywhere in nature. In most living forms, propagations are control by competition for resources. However, animals have made a radical improvement in performance by internalizing the choices of what is to be inhibited. Early in the evolutionary path, animals developed ingenious devices that inhibit the runaway processes. It is a choice rather than an imposition. Making the choices about what is not be to retained gives animals the ability to perpetually learn and diversify.

Inhibition is the neuromuscular process that blocks either overt expression or propagation of messages through the organization. It works first at a cellular level by inhibiting the firing of synapses. It also operates at higher levels by consciously stopping muscular firings that that had been identified for execution. Inhibition serves a number of functions by its ability to block synaptic activity:

  • Gating. In neurons, inhibitory synapses corral the flow of messages. In combination with the excitatory synapses, they route acceptance through a network, closing ‘gates’ to direct a firing sequence along a path. Gating is a logic function which sums excitatory (positive) and inhibitory (negative) signals to allow signals to flow along neural paths.
  • Coordination of movements. Working at a higher level, inhibition contributes to the rhythm of movements, by periodically inhibiting neuromuscular sequences. For example, as an infant learns to crawl, it inhibits muscle firings that activate the left arm and right leg, thus providing the base for the right arm and left leg to move forward. A moment later, the converse inhibition continues the forward movement; the right arm and left leg are now inhibited, freeing the other pair to move. Inhibition establishes the rhythm of movement that we see displayed as a centipede manages the flow its many legs or a drummer keeps his beat.
  • Blocking dysfunctional responses. Inhibition is expressed by blocking sequences that carry signals. It stops motions judged to be harmful to an organism, such as a loss of balance, eating noxious substances or using socially incorrect language. It can be used consciously to stop habitual behaviors that become viewed as damaging. And, in the context of communication, to prevent noxious messages from entering our consciousness—“see no evil,….”
  • Learning. Learning is a natural result of the reinforcing reverberations that flow through neural and organizational systems. Without inhibition reverberation will clog the limited systems. In simple organisms, the memory is filled and the system becomes unresponsive to fresh information. With limits on its resources, the nervous system would drive itself into fixed routines. Part of mind’s work is to remove links between sequences to allow for alternatives, either for explicit learning or serendipital creativity. Without the ability to prevent efferent motor sequences from initiating, there would be no room to introduce new sequences, that is, listen to something not already established in one’s memory circuits. As silence is to communication, so inhibiting is to learning. Inhibition opens the door to novelty. As Cotterill suggests, while it may be that while humans lack ‘free will’ but the evidence supports their access to ‘free won’t.’ (1998)

In spite of its bad name, inhibition is critical to engagement in two major ways as described here. First, it enables coordinated rhythms of movement and second, it enables a system to make choices about how to use resources. Acceptance provides access to resources; inhibition provides the control that makes those resources useable. Both are required for there to be awareness of the other.

Music of the Spheres

Entrainment is a process in time. It takes time for a photon to bounce between electrons and for amino acids to couple into a protein; A it takes time to hear what the other person (the other system) is saying; it takes time for the hermeneutic circles to close on an international treaty. At every level of engagement, entrainment is a two-way process that sets up a rhythm of coming-and-going that sets up expectancies and readiness to respond. An enunciation proposes a pace of exchange directly by a choice of words, the urgency of their expression, or the request for response.

A response can follow in milli-seconds after an alert of danger to a loved one or follow weeks of rumination on an ethical issue. While the over-all rhythm of our engagements is bound by genetics and technology and evolves with the culture, every exchange establishes a natural rhythm for the particular participants. For atomic particles, the determinants are electromagnetic forces; for simple organisms, it is the biochemistry; but animals have attained the freedom to set the rhythms with conscious intentionality in shared music, conversation, and the imagined response of distant audiences sympathizing with our thoughts and emotions.

Pacing, a music, develops through a harmonizing across the spectrum of enunciations and responses. In human communication, rhythm orchestrates the voices, expressions, e.g., sentences, reception processes, rhythms of the body, demands for attention within and among the participants, and long waves of cultural accommodation across the whole set of conversants. A conversation is effective when the pacing of each element synchronizes with the others: all the phonemes of a word need to be completely expressed before a speaker begins to generate the next word. Interruptions in this flow produce stuttering, in speech or thought.

The breathing must enable a sentence to be phrased, expressed on a single breath or broken in relation to its grammatical structure. The listeners simultaneously construct the sentences in their own neuro-muscular structure, or pass them through an organization’s network to get acceptance, then in to prepare to receive the next enunciation. Conscious processing introduces delays in transmission, taking time to search and test, and readies the neuro-muscular systems for new receptions. Inhibiting a misinterpretation also takes time. If first interpretations are recognized as inappropriate, their flows must be inhibited so that new neuro-muscular proxy sequences can begin.

When the conversation introduces material novel to some of the participants, the pace must slow to allow for searching and testing for internal dialogues. These detours all take time. The design and conduct of engagements needs rhythms that accommodate these delays to allow sufficient time for participation and exploration.

The rhythms of discourse vary the ways in which ideas are enunciated. The participants have to be prepared join in the rhythm in order to interpret the enunciations. Shakespeare began many of his plays with ‘throw away’ dialogues to give his audiences time to settle into the mood of his drama, to begin to listen. That is one of the ways by which enunciations establish the pacing. I comment on three other methods that facilitate engagements: redundancy, bundling, and chaining.

Redundancy

Redundancy is introduced into communications to enhance the ability to anticipate and be prepared for what is coming—once we know a tune, we can anticipate its sequence from hearing the first few notes. We can sing ahead of the music, for we have constructed a rendition of it in neuromuscular sequences, in memory loops.

Once we have identified the song and begun singing along the rest of the performance is formally redundant, though their actual play reinforces the memory trace and maintains the coupling of source with the listener. Spoken and written languages contain highly redundant sounds, letters and words. In English, the letter ‘u’ almost always follows the letter ‘q,’ and the word [find example word] is almost always followed by [example].

Redundancy is essential to coupling. It allows the receiver to keep pace with the incoming message. In comprehending verbal communications, the ability to anticipate enables the receivers to rapidly reconfigure messages to their own mode of thinking. It is misleading to imagine that we ‘take in’ messages. Rather receivers create muscular sequences just as if they had spoken the words. The message, reformed into the unvoiced sequence is accepted with a caveat that it might be a misrepresentation.

If a mismatch is detected the proxied muscular sequence is inhibited and a search starts for a new hypothetical configuration. In general, we don’t need to even take in a whole message to understand it; a comparison process tests the hypothesis that what one generates is equivalent to what was received. If the message is full of novelty, one needs more time to integrate the words into a meaningful context.

Generating a phoneme as part of an expected stream may take 25 milliseconds, but searching for a correct one may take 250 milliseconds. All the forms of redundancy may combine to produce over-all expectancy in excess of 90% in English texts. High redundancy allows us to flow with the music or speech. We dance with the assumption of near perfect anticipation. We are entrained by songs and we finish our spouse’s sentences.

The use of redundancy aids coupling by regularizing the flow of absorption. With a highly redundant message, the senders can anticipate that after a given interval the audience will be with them. Most of the audience will generate an internal response that readies them for the next, highly redundant message. Their neuro-muscular sequences are reset to start when a signal indicates the next musical bar, poetic stanza, or semantic enunciation is flowing. And conversely, the speakers have reset their programs to generate proxies of the other’s response. The in-flow and out-flow of messages involves couplings in some regions of the spectrum of exchange.

At times the rhythm is obvious, and at other times, it is inaccessible and its audience is incapable of sponsoring a sympathetic answer. In earlier historic era much speech was explicitly rhythmic. Epic poems such as the Iliad relied on rhythm to aid the narrator’s memory and supported the audiences’ sense of belonging to the community of heroes that the tale immortalized. Now we use more subtle devices. Theater and cinema rely on the audiences’ recall of the beloved dialogue and comedy skits.

Authors fall back on familiar metaphors and representative examples. However, with development of distant media, printed materials, electronic transmissions and computer generated images, the immediacy of communication has diminished, weakening the rhythmic element, and forcing communications to rely on internal reconstruction of the messages carried by the media. Academic writers and lawyers seem to ignore their readers’ need for rhythm and flow, forcing us to reconstruct what ‘the author must mean,’ resorting to rewriting the material in our heads. The reconstructing efforts interfere with coupling.

The readers feel distanced from the author and unable to assess the agreement of their reconstruction with the original. It is not surprising that deconstructionists such as Derrida asserted that the meaning of a text is weakly associated with its author’s intent. Without direct coupling, conveyance of meaning depends even more heavily on redundancy in rhythm, word, and sense.

Attribution and bundling

All languages provide us with the ability to evoke in others complex ideas and events using simple labels. Every adjective and noun brings to the mutually informed participants descriptive qualities and bundles of elements and the verbs organize sequences of acts. Attribution characterize an entity by assigning it a quality, bundling packages elements into a whole, and grammatical sequencing gives meaning.

These tools of aggregation allow us to convey ideas quickly, to use shared understanding to identify differences. The technical vocabulary of a discipline gives participants a ‘short hand’ to speed their communication and these abstractions allow the conversation to get to a point quickly. Using high levels of attribution and bundling ideas under a few labels provides efficiencies in communication and rhythmic couplings that accompanies sharing an image, a piece of music, or an emotional experience.

The ability to hold highly attributed discourse is itself a bonding experience, coupling participants emotionally. Pervasive use of similar attribution schemes provides assurance of future coupling, of being in tune with one’s social and intellectual environment.

With far less packaging, being direct allow more intense discourse appropriate to exploring feelings, searching for ideas, resolving conflicts, coming to new meanings. For example, recalling a person’s conversations, eye contact and bodily stance, the responsiveness to our interventions, and indicating how different he is from some another person with whom we are familiar, produces a more involving engagement calling for a more relax pacing, perhaps a more intimate coupling than is produced by an incisive psychological classification or associating him with some famous personage. Each level of bundling and attribution requires a attention to matching the pace of an engagement, and the demands it places on each of the participants.

Sharing common levels of attribution and bundling contributes to coupling, in part by allowing the pace of the communication to suit each participant’s favored pace in dialogue. A dialogue constructed between people using significantly different levels of attribution is threatening to everyone, for it denies the use of their core rhythms. The anthropologist, Edward T. Hall writes of failures experienced by Caucasians trying to work with Hopi Indians as due to the different pacings of the two cultures.

They used different levels of attribution and different rules of bundling. Such a discordant dialogue between participants can be more frustrating and disorganizing than an attempt at conversation between speakers of different languages. When speakers are using a common language, their neuromuscular expectations of completion are disturbed by differing attributions. Communication is less stressful when the participants are fully aware that they using different languages because they accept the delays and stay in a search mode; they are jointly slowing their expected pace of exchange, coupled in their search for proper translations.

Chaining

Chaining links ideas and words into meaningful expressions enabling appreciation of an enunciation by another system. A series of entrained loops produces a chain of understanding. A protein molecule is a chain of amino acids linked through their valences, branched and immensely long. Linking phonemes produces a vocal chain through neuro-muscular firing sequences. Chaining organizes muscle groups to produce actions—movements, vocalizations, or inhibitions. It produces the complex movements of the eye, of walking, of typing, of hitting a golf ball. Chaining configures words, phrases, sentences, complete works of music composition, poetry, essays, even an author or composer’s life work.

Different mechanisms for linking chains appear at each extension, all has their origins in trains of proxied muscle-group firings. Chains also define interpersonal exchanges that knit a culture together. We are aware of these chains in trivial and grand rituals. In North America, when passing a stranger on a quite street, one glances to acknowledge the person, saying “hi.” The response is the same, a glance and an even briefer“ ‘i.” Failure to complete such ritual sequences may leave both people distanced, even threatened by other. So rituals are held to be sacred, that is, convents for coupled behaviors committed to by members of a culture.

Chains execute or rehearse an action operating on the material strata of the neural network, but the process is better characterized as resonant contagions. And the image of a wildfire provides a more accurate metaphor than a flow of water or an electronic network. Once energized an idea, image, or metaphor can find linkages anywhere. Chains propagate harmonically. As in a wildfire in the brush, flying embers ignite fires far beyond the fire line. Some burst into flame immediately—are acted upon—others lay smoldering to flame up days later.

Fires erupt where there is no apparent connection; so resonance grabs, links to, distant memories. And resonance, like heat, ignites a contagion of linkages. Messages from cerebral cortex incite the chaining, but do not fuel it. They enchain neuromuscular sequences, some of which ‘fire’ immediately, producing bodily motion or speech; some are inhibited; and some remain as silent links to a future eruption.

Chaining significantly improves the pace and efficiency of entrainment, thus, of engagements. It allows a listener to move with the received enunciation, but more significantly, to anticipate and move into readiness for the next phoneme, musical note, logical step, or emotional expression. Surprises may provide enjoyment to a listener; but they also break the established harmony of a coupled dialogue. To allow an exchange of enunciations requires that each loop can more or less effortlessly lead to a sympathetic loop.

Music is explicitly organized to allow the listener to predict the next tone, its timing and timbre. The pleasure is derived from setting up an expectation that allows the listener to anticipate the coming music and enjoy occasions of surprise. Poetry supports anticipation of the flow, and even prose provides a rhythm to guide the chaining. Hall emphasizes the importance of completing the chaining cycles to our psychic as well as social functions in a presentation of Spitz’s work.

Spitz’s theory is that if human beings (or other animals) are put in the position of having to cope with the consequences of too many broken chains, they will compensate. The compensations will ultimately become so numerous as to block or prohibit normal behavior. The culmination of this process, he called, “derailment of dialogue,” a term that indicates not only words but actions as well. To such derailment, he attributes many of the ills of our overcrowded cities, including juvenile delinquency, sadistic teenage crimes, neuroses, and psychosis.

Chaining can refer to an established sequence and to a connected set of messages or movements that are linked by some physiological clue, a cognitive decision, or by an inhibition that allows a following sequence. That is, the chains can be fixed sequences or forked paths that are taken according to conditions. Two commonly used devices for building the links that create a text, a dialogue, or physical actions are metaphoric and casual chaining.

Metaphoric Chaining

Metaphoric chaining links by repeating the use of a relation. The rhythm arises in the predictability of a pattern of xRy being repeated—R being any relation, y the source, and x the target A pure example is the linkage that holds between octaves of the musical scale. Once the scale is known in one key the listener can easily transpose from one octave to another by enunciating any note within the target octave. The chaining is between octaves. Metaphoric chaining is explicit in poetry and often used in oratory.

The famous speech of Martin Luther King Jr. where he used the phrase, “I have a dream that one day….” leads us from one image to another. The use of examples itself is an example of metaphoric chaining. The example repeats or introduces an xRy that chains the relation with a general proposition, just as I have done here with the example of the musical scale. The metaphor can be a complex melody line in a musical composition, the epigram introducing a chapter, or a tale that sets up a psychological theory.

Chained metaphors give pace to an encounter by conveying ideas in packages, alternating between the assumed known metaphoric source and its targets and new couplings of complex ideas, gestalts, whole theories… The metaphoric route enhances the rhythm that connects participants in a conversation and links one content domain to a fresh one.

Metaphor chaining is a feature of coupled communication, contributing to the use of unity among participants. Causal chaining is a tool of rational discourse, contributing to information flows of conduit communication.

Causal Chaining

Causal chaining works by using consistent rules of a logic to generate next utterances. This logic implies or predicts something about the next idea or proposition. The logic could be deductive, preparing to link the listener to a second premise or a conclusion. It could be narrative, preparing the listener for a temporal sequence of related events. And it could be a conditional or a question, encouraging the listener to become active in setting the path of discourse. The different forms of causal chaining make use of different platforms of discourse and their distinct logics, reality bases, and contexts.

Causal chaining is facilitated when the enunciation indicates it is using a specific platform of discourse. The indicators of the platform are in the grammar used for the enunciation. An indicator such as mood informs the listener which grammar the enunciator is using, enabling the listener to anticipate the configuration of the coming message. Responders organize their echoing responses with the same grammar or choose another to redirect the dialogue.

Each platform has a distinct rhythm of give and take into which the participants may settle as they create a conversation. A switch in platforms, and thus grammars, can disorganize the flow, signal a transition in the dialogue, or initiate play a flowing back and forth among moods of expression. A break in the chain may indicate an attempted power shift or express a loss of attention. With a loss of attention, the coupling is strained and the chaining disrupted. Typically, such breaks induce conflict, requiring conscious reconnecting if the participants are to continue coupling.

Causal chaining operates at a more cognitive level of discourse organization than the metaphoric or rhythmic chaining. It grows from strategic choices as made in developing a decision, resolving a conflict, or planning event inducing a change. Its timeframe is longer, such that we may consciously chose the platforms and shift grammars to forward the purposes of the participants.

Chaining of any type is a prime instrument of strategy. It is quintessential play whether within a single person’s mind or across a group of conversants, whether it is expressed in words or music or bodily contrapose. It’s the awareness of articulation. (“Scrabble” is perfect, though trivial example.) Mostly it is enjoyed; we play with words, improvise music or a dance, and envision futures. Even animals enjoy such engagements: otters set up games and myna birds improvise on another’s song. Chains forecast coming sequences, which allow us to anticipate a joyful future as well as a painful one; chaining enables stress, worry and shame as well as humor and ebullience.

Every engagement is across a spectrum. They begin with atoms and molecules dancing, and octave by octave establish supra-harmonies until they resonate with the [Cycles of the Hindu cosmology.] All communication is harmonic coupling, energized by the encounter with differences, with disharmonies.

Domination and Mutuality

Coupling, which follows from all communication, produces or modifies the meta-system of the coupling parties. Communicating meaning produces constraint—the utterance, “When you say ‘car’ you are speaking of a vehicle with four wheels, ….” expresses a constraint on the utterance ‘car.’ By accepting the constraints an element recognizes the dominance of another element, in accordance with the distribution of power brought to the discourse by the coupled participants.

The constraints are imposed as a function of the power of elements to establish the ‘terms of coupling’ as described in Chapter 6, § The terms represent the distribution and placement of dominance in a coupling. In the pendulum example, the power is a function of the comparative masses of pendulums and of their relations to their environments. A massive pendulum draws less massive elements away from their natures, just as the personality of a dominant person draws people to follow that person’s tempo and line of action.

When the coupled systems have similar natural rhythms their joining produces a strengthened meta-system. When their rhythms are not coordinated the coupling dissipates the energy, leaving an over-all system that has a coherent focus, but less resonant energy than the sum of the energies, albeit diffuse, of the individual elements. Bells tuned to one frequency conserve their mutual energies. A set in which the elements are broadly in harmony displays mutuality. A diffuse set dissipates energy quickly.

Systems display dominance when some when some participants in a communication enter with high levels of energy compared to others. It displays mutuality when the elements operate and generate messages from similar spectra in their neuromuscular sequences or, equivalently, data loops. In abstract systems, which we characterize as signaling at a single frequency as does the classic pendulum, we can describe coupling by the two dimensions of dominance and mutuality. The text book cases of entrainment have elements are operating at frequencies which are close to, either 1:1 as in the case of the pendulums, or an integer ratio such as 3:2 (a musical ‘fifth.’) When the relation is close to an integer ratio coupling will move the elements to operate at exactly that ratio, each adjusting according to their relative strengths.

But in natural systems, messages are complex. The selected message is accompanied by a variety of harmonics and transients. Coupling occurs across a spectrum of sequences (data loops), as described in Chapter 6. The incoming message sets off a cascade of reverberations of varying strength. The breadth and intensity of the response is a function of how closely the incoming message resonates across the receiver’s spectrum of stored sequences, memories, and expectations. That is, the engagement’s effectiveness is a function of both the closeness of matching between the spectra of the sender and receiver and the dominance or weight of the one over the other. These two qualities of the engagement determine the effectiveness of the coupling.

The two modes of coupling also articulate three different forms of power that are identified in Foucault’s relevant definition. He states that “in the most general terms, power designates relations between partners involved in an ensemble of actions that induce others and follow from one another.” In this view, power, and coupling, follow from three properties: the communication of constraints, the capacity of a system to constrain behaviors, and the discipline to assign labor and place in hierarchies.

Reframing the power discussion in terms of spectral coupling allows us to examine the functioning and formation of meta-systems through engagements, without resorting to motivations beyond those that formed the engagement. That is, the forms of organization emerge as a function of grammars used by the participants. Foucault’s three aspects of power characterize the form of meta-systems that evolve from different communicative acts.

Dominance is expressed in the degree that each participant is drawn away from its origins into the relation and of the breadth of the spectrum of coupling that is involved. Dominance by one elements typically pull the others away from their natural resonance—in Maturana terms from their autopoietic organization—and its spectrum of harmonies, thus losing its access to the aspects of the environment that are tuned to the participants’ spectral variety. Dominance denies the subordinate members access to the diverse power they had on entering the relation, though the domination may increase the effectiveness of those capabilities which harmonizes with the dominant members’ impositions. For example, a laborer may be more productive in a mass production line than as a lone artisan.

Mutuality in an engagement leaves the elements to use harmonies close to those which they brings to the engagement, and thus retains access to their peripheral skills and knowledge. The members keep access to the neuro-muscular sequences they have developed in other contexts. Mutuality increases the meta-system’s capacity to deal with the environment beyond that attained by component’s separate capacities or attained by developing dominance. An artisan is more able to respond to variations in the environment when he is free to use his craft skills.

The balance between dominance and mutuality defines the structuration of the meta-system—Foucault’s third property related to hierarchy and role. There is an obvious argument that associates the dominant mode with hierarchical structures and the mutual mode with flat organizations, whether of a social structure or one of biological elements. Dominance and mutuality are social as well as neurological characteristics.

The richness of spectral coupling among a set of systems is a function of the balance of dominance and mutuality in their engagements. It is also characterized by the degree to which the participants in an engagement differ in their characteristic rhythms. These two dimensions—the resonance among the participants and the diversity of power—help us to envision the impact of different communicative relations.

The spectral coupling can be either compatible or obligatory: compatible if the participants’ spectra are similar, and obligatory if the dominating frequencies pull the weaker members off of their natural rhythms. In such coupling, the weaker members lose access to their own spectrum of knowledge because they are forced to couple with a foreign rhythm. Coupling appears in four conditions that produce significantly different social systems:

  • Dominating-obligatory communications including system members with greatly differing strengths destroys the individuality of its members as we find in fascist regimes and doctrinaire religious communities with diverse populations.
  • Dominating-compatible systems take the form of hierarchies of power with willing followers. We find such in radical one-cause political parties.
  • Mutually-obligatory systems depotentiate its members leading to alienation, as in the present consumer society where “keeping up with the Jones” is a mutual but obligatory imposition. It exhibits top-down causation, for the behavior of the whole determines that of the part. Such cultures lose richness for the members think alike, due to the strength of the obligatory messages.
  • Mutually-compatible systems are characterized by the easy acceptance of communication leading to a rich base of trust, understanding, and access to the receptive facilities of other members. The qualities are democratic and fluid, producing a good-willed but unwielding community. It is a condition for developing benign relational conversation, but perhaps not for concerted action.

Putnam [Putnam, 1993 #185] give us a vivid example of two cultures operating these conditions in southern and northern Italy. In the South, the governments are autocratic, business is conducted in an atmosphere of mistrust, laws are made to be broken, and the economy flounders.

The culture is obligatory and dominating, disciplining and alienating, and leaves its citizenry feeling powerless and self-destructive. In northern Italy over the last thousand years, the culture has built on the cooperative behaviors that coalesced from small craft groups, religious fraternities, and local militia to create a society with characteristics I would identify as mutually-compatible, cooperative, democratic, law maintaining, and economically successful. The North revels in a high level of social capital, whereas the south starves for lack of a cooperative social fabric.

An unequal power distribution in itself is not destructive; it is when the differences in the natural spectra of engagement of a culture are diverse Luhmann characterized relations in such a dominating-obligatory culture as penetrating. The dominant element takes over the identity of the weaker elements, denying appreciation of their complexity and responsiveness and leaving them unrecognized except for the disturbed energy they are obligated to provide the meta-system.

The penetrated elements are the drones of autocracy and the milquetoast of a marriage. Entrainment can be destructive to participants driving them beyond their stable ranges. In the extreme, their core biophysical rhythms are so changed that the autopoietic capability is impaired threatening the death of the system. In more cases, the change in system’s rhythms due to the ‘forced oscillation’ disconnects the weaker systems from that portion of its spectrum of memory traces and autopoietic processes so that they are taken over by the dominating system. The forced shift in the oscillation of the main programs of the weaker systems leaves them but appendages to the dominant system(s), out of sorts with their natural rhythms. Penetration not only results in the weakening of some component systems, but also results in a loss of richness in the over-all meta-system.

It loses access to complexity that comes from mutual entrainment with participating systems. Penetration wastes the ‘variety’ that is provided in independent relations while gaining control of encompassed and weakened participating systems. Penetration tends to lose potential complexity in attaining amplification; the spectrum of potential response narrows into the arena which the dominant system has taken over and amplified. Understanding the workings of penetration makes it clear why unambiguous communication is a dangerous instrument for long term relations in a culture.

Luhmann characterizes the mutually-compatible exchanges as interpenetrating They give ‘voice’ to the harmonics of all the members, each trusting and gaining access to the others meanings and thus constraints. With interpenetration, each entity or person retains its essential identity (its organizational identity in autopoietic theory) but typically experiences an ongoing reconfiguration of its own expression of identity in memories, beliefs, and information.

Interpenetration draws the qualities of the distinct organizations together—each participant gives up itself to the other to a degree inversely proportional to its relative strength. Interpenetration also gives the encompassing system access to aspects of the systems that are not integrated into the meta-system. This openness makes available the local knowledge of the participants to respond to and become coupled with perturbations from other sources in the environment.

The richness of these extra system couplings induces more non-harmonics and thus increases the system’s abilities to respond to the environment. A closely working team can get more information from its environment than a set of individuals. Coupled systems that are interpenetrating have a greater sensitivity to the environment, are more open to intelligence from the environment, and are more varied in their response than the sum of the capabilities of which they are composed. As stated in Chapter 6, they are self-organizing.

The essence of interpenetration is in the creation of a symbiotic system strengthening existing sub-systems by enabling additional coupling. A well-established culture would be based on an energetic fabric of interpenetrating simple and complex identities just as are the bodies of embodied living thing and the cultures such as Putnam observed in Northern Italy.

The physics of coupling provides a clear analogy to the issues in social coupling, both to the obvious dominations, but also to the side effects of passivity and servility. The quality of communications and the societies within which they operate are a function of experienced interpenetrations of the participants. Full interpenetration seems to be an idyllic state. However, it is not likely to be stable—if ever achieved. It would decay into an anarchy or obligatory state of conformity.

The northern Italians have not suffered this instability as they exist in relation to other societies and economies. The Northern culture must respond to a competitive and hostile environment beyond its boundaries. Responding to forces that challenge the compatibility of their culture with its environment saves it from falling into internal strife. The optimal society needs both mutually compatible characteristics and engagement with its neighbors who have competing needs.

Epistemic orders

As offered in the opening paragraphs of this chapter, an adequate description of communications requires a paradoxical presentation. An exposition of communicative processes takes divided paths toward distinction and similarity. Communication is articulation; making connected distinctions. In the earlier chapters, I explored the path of distinction that leads to conformity, to grammatical differentiations. In this chapter, I explored the path of convergence toward oneness that is produced by coupling.

In the beginning we know everything and have nothing to say. When we learn to speak, we isolate ourselves, establishing personal identity then striving to join with others. In the search for personal identity, we arrive at commonality. In the search for shared meaning, we create an infinity of constraining differences. We travel divergent paths searching for the oneness we had lost at Babel.

In this book, I develop the processes of forming distinct enunciations designed to couple us with others. The stages of engagement exhibit different forms of coming to meaning, that is, to ‘knowing,’ which I organize according to their epistemic order. An order represents a mode of constructing meaning—modes which increasingly constrain behavior over increasingly grand spheres.

  • The zero order is a condition devoid of meaning; it is a condition equally of knowing nothing and everything. It is knowing ‘what is’ in total innocence and total freedom. Nothing is communicated.
  • The first order conveys information when an organism notices and reports a difference between ‘what was’ and ‘what is.’ Noticing becomes possible when an organism has memory that enables time binding. This knowledge is ‘information’ in the conduit mode introduced by Shannon in 1947. It is a specification of choices among constrained alternatives.
  • The second order constructs meaning through connecting ideas using grammars. It is the basis of dialogue in which participants construct and send messages in response to each other’s messages. Construction tends to create new meanings associated with new constraints on the use of symbols.
  • The third order knowledge derives from coupling with others to bring about a community of meaning. It uses structure in the service of efficient coupling and in reflection on second order knowledge. I associate the processes of relational conversation with the third order to highlight the sense of flow that we identify with languaging. Languaging gives meaning through reflection on the relations generated in engagement. Third order exchanges can be thought of as a cognitive achievement, accepting the other, or as a relation of love as John MacMurray characterizes it. ([MacMurray, #195])

There are indefinitely more orders through which meaning is redefined. They operate through reflective exchanges for knowing that we know that we know, leading ultimately to Indra’s Web where every individual reflects the whole, or equivalently, to Teilhard de Chardin’s Omega Point where the totality of meaning appears indistinguishable from the Zero order, but now knowing everything while distinguishing nothing. Here, complete constraint and complete freedom are identical.

The styles of communications through which we attain experience each epistemic order differ as I hypothesize in Table 8.1.

  • Epistemic Orders

Order

Meaning

Constraint

Process

Communication
form

ZERO

No distinct expectations;
no meaning
Just ‘what is’ so no constraint “Being” None
All is known; nothing is articulated

1st

Differences noted with minimal context ‘What was’
Time binding
Awareness of difference;
“not One”
Information
Uninterpretable
no self-awareness

2nd

Observing Structuring
of differences
Grammatical structuring Dialogue
Interpretable; observer
is aware of self

3rd

Reflecting Echoed similarity

in a “Hall of Mirrors”

Coupling Conversation
Approach to local oneness; Aware of self
and other
Languaging
Communication about
communication

Nth

Infinite levels of reflecting Total, which is equivalent to none Harmonic coupling None
Everything is shared

The orders represent different usages, not an evolution series of developing communication abilities. All orders probably become available with the appearance of consciousness. The orders are utilized according to the needs of a society. It is only the degree of structuring and the articulation of coupling that develops with civilization. More vocabulary and technology for exchange are available with higher orders of reflection now than in earlier era, but the complexity of structure, that is, of the grammars, has not changed appreciably. Communication of meaning appears to be limited by physiological factors rather than culture complexity.

Humans are capable of having thoughts and expressions denied by the culture; in forming meaning we are restrained by the ideologies of our culture rather than our physiologies. By implication, we must rediscover our physiological capacity to identify the freedoms we have allowed our cultures to obscure.

That is not to disparage culture, for it is only through its constraints that we gaining meaning. But we lose opportunities for greater understanding by accepting the tools of understanding as sources of truth. However, they must first be the objects of our inquiry, for moving from one order to another in engagements can be difficult for the immediate participants and destabilizing to their society. Of particular concern is the difficulty of maintaining engagements in the third order and beyond, as Bateson pointed out when he first wrote of the idea in 1942 and Berman [Berman, 1981 #194] and I [McWhinney, 1990 #193] have since echoed.

Exploration of the epistemic orders helps us understand different levels of engagement. It also confirms the dilemma of system thinking, which presumes whole-part relations yet must treat every activity as inter-system, as between independent entities. Communication requires the elements to be different; understanding requires the elements to share common definition. Coupling requires similarity, but is only detectable when difference are present.

This paradox is deeply buried in the vocabulary with which we describe systems: entraining, enchaining, articulating, conversation, metaphor, … All carry the joint sense of separating and uniting, of constraining to articulate. Civilization has expanded the space in which to argue about the turtle and the graviton, process and structure, boundary and relation, and the One and Not-one. Our task is not to resolve the paradoxes, but to manage them.

LINKS

About Will McWhinney

About Entrainment

About Path of Change (In Dutch)