Archive for the ‘Ecology’ Category

About Alchemy and Logic

Thursday, April 28th, 2016

 

Rebis, Res Bina, Double Matter

Res Bina (REBIS), Double Matter

This blog is about Logic, Alchemy and the relationship between Logic and Alchemy.

Logic is based on the Square of Opposition of Aristotle. This square was discussed for more than 2000 years. Recently scientists detected that the Square is really a Cube. It misses an extra dimension.

The Square describes  the six oppositions (“dual combinations”) of possibility (“some”, Particular Affirmative), necessity (“all”, Universal Affirmative), not-possibility (“not some”, Particular Negative) and not-necessity (“not all”, Universal Negative).

Geometric Logic is a part of Modal Logic which is a part of Logic.

In Geometric Logic the Linguistic Representations of Logic are mapped to the Graphical Representations of Geometry.

Modal Logic works with the notion that propositions can be mapped to sets of possible worlds.

The idea of possible worlds is attributed to the famous mathematician Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716), who spoke of possible worlds as ideas in the mind of God and argued that our actually created world must be the best of all possible worlds. Possible worlds play an important role in the explanation of Quantum Mechanics.

Alchemy is based on the Square of the Four Elements. The Four Elements are oppositions. The oppositions of Alchemy are related to the oppositions of the Square of Opposition of Aristotle in an orthogonal model. They form an arc of 90 degrees, which makes Alchemy the complex part (imaginary) of Logic.

In his work De Arte Combinatoria Leibniz developed a general theory of science that was based on a fusion between Alchemy and Logic.

The four Elements of Leibniz

The Square of Leibniz

In this blog I will explain Alchemy and Logic and show that Alchemy and Geometric Logic share the same geometry, the Hexagon (the Seal of Solomon), which is a 2D-mapping of the Cube of Space of the Sefer Yetsirah.

Leibniz calculating machine

Drawing of Leibniz’s calculating machine, featured as a folding plate in Miscellanea Berolensia ad incrementum scientiarum (1710), the volume in which he first describes his invention.

About Alchemy

When thou hast made the quadrangle round, 
Then is all the secret found. 
George Ripley (d. 1490).

One of the most complicated ancient architectures is the architecture behind Alchemy. The architecture of Alchemy is full of strange concepts and allegories.

Alchemy comes from the Arabic al-khemia meaningthe art of transformation.

Alchemy is an ancient science that was practiced all over the world. The most famous teacher was called Hermes Trismegistus in Greece and Thoth in Egypt. The old science of Hermes came back in the Renaissance.The essence of Alchemy is called REBIS (Res Bina), Double Matter. REBIS is the end product of the alchemical magnum opus or Great Work. It is the Fusion of Mind and Matter (the Body).

Double matter is sometimes described as the divine hermaphrodite, a reconciliation of spirit and matter, a being of both male and female qualities as indicated by the two heads within a single body.

The Great Work is the chemical and personal quest to create Double Matter, the Philosopher’s Stone. The stone is the agent of chemical transmutation, and the key ingredient in the creation of the elixir of life, said to heal all diseases, induce longevity and even immortality.

In current Physics  transmutation is proved at room temperature in a proces called Cold Fusion.

In Physics one explanation for the fusion between Quantum Mechanics and Gravity is called the Wheeler Feynman Absorber Theory. In this theory the Future causes the Past and vice-versa.

The Philosopher Stone

The Philosopher Stone

The aim of the Great Work is a fusion with the One (the Blazing Star, Saturn, Point) that is divided in the Two (Sun & Moon, Male & Female, Line) and the Four Planets (Square), the 12 (4×4-4) Constellations or more structures based on a power of a power (of a power….)  of 2. The Great Work moves from 2**N, …., Sixteen to Four to Two to One (or from one to two to four) in a Spiraling Spiral Motion.

Saturn is the 7th Star, connected to the 7th day of the week, Shabbath, the point of rest in the middle.

The Spiraling Spiral in Chartres Cathedral

The Spiraling Spiral in Chartres Cathedral

The One, to which the elements must be reduced, is a little circle in the center of the squared figure (the cross). The cross is the mediator, making peace between the opposition of the planets.

The Spiral of the Great Work

The Spiral of the Great Work

The winged dragon represents First Matter (Quintessence, The Fifth Element) and suggests ascension, a merging of matter (body) and spirit (Creativity). Creativity (Enthusiasm, Spirit, Inspiration, Imagination) is the engine behind the Spiral Wheel.

The First Matter is the primordial chaos comparable to what we now call the vacuum, the state of lowest energy. This state contains all possibilities.

It can be looked on as an unorganized state of energy  that is the same for all substances and exists in an invisible state between energy and matter.

The First Matter is the One, the Point in the Middle of the Circle. In current physics a point is called a singularity or a black hole.

Alchemy is about re-combination summarized in the Latin expression Solve (break down in separate elementset Coagula (coming back together (coagulating) in a new, higher form).

Solve and Coagula

Solvite Corpora et Coagulata Spiritus (“dissolve the body and coagulate the spirit”).

Earth (Body) becomes Water (Spirit) by dissolving it in some solvent. Water becomes Air (a moist vapor) by boiling, which further heating turns into Fire (a dry vapor).

Finally Fire becomes Earth by allowing the vapors to condense on a solid material (a stone).

The circulation may repeat if it is done in a reflux condenser, such as the Pelican or kerotakis.

Kerotakis

Destillation

The Pelican

The Pelican feeds its children with blood from the Heart. It is a symbol of the Upper Cycle of the Mind.

According to the early alchemists, the four elements—fire, water, air, and earth—come into existence via the combination of specific qualities, recognized as hot, cold, wet, and dry, being impressed on to the Prime Matter. For example, when hot and dry are impressed on the Prime Matter, we have fire.

(Hot and Cold) and (Wet and Dry) are oppositions. Their fusion is the empty set.

(Hot or Cold) and (Wet or Dry) can be combined -> (Hot, Wet), (Hot, Dry), etc.

The Cold allows substances to get together. The Hot is the power of separation.

Wet things tend to be Flexible (Fluent, Movement, Self, Not-Agency) whereas Dry things are fixed and structured (Agency, Resistance, not-Movement).

When the qualities are changed, the elements themselves are changed. Adding Water to Fire substituting wet for dry; hot and dry becomes hot and wet: steam, or Air.As you can see in de picture below Hot & Cold and Wet and Dry are Binary Opposites (“lines”) that are voided by the central cross, the point of the Empty Set, The Void (A and not-A -> Empty).

Hot & Dry = Fire, Hot & Wet = Air, Cold & Wet = Water and Cold & Dry = Earth.

There are four types of Trinities the Passion-trinity (Dry, Wet, Warm), the Structure-trinity (Dry, Wet, Cold), the Resistance-trinity  (Warm, Cold, Dry) and the Movement-trinity (Warm, Cold, Wet).

The Square rotates. The wheel of the Square is driven by the four qualities. Wet on the rising side, Hot on the top, Dry on the descending side, and Cold on the bottom.

The start is powerless (Cold). By becoming more flexible (Wet) success and power comes (Heat).  At the top Rigidity (Dry) undermines the system and it falls back to a powerless state.

The Four Triangles

The Four Elements arise out of the Quintessence, The Fifth Element, The Symbol of The Heart Chakra, the Seal of Solomon

The four Elements all share the Triangle of the Holy Trinity. Every Trinity is seen from another perspective.

The two triangels, The Up-triangel and the Down-Triangel, are Opposites that are created out of two triangels that contain two Opposites that are fused. Humans are opposites in opposition.

Humans are part of the Bilateria,  animals with bilateral symmetry.

Humans can be described as a fusion of two mirrored bilateral triangles, the Up-triangel related to the Top of the Body (Mind) and the Bottom-triangel of the lower Body both connected by the Heart. The two triangels and the separate triangels have to be balanced.

The principle of Balancing the two Triangles of Top & Bottom of the Body is represented by the Egyptian Goddess Ma’at who weights the Heart (the connector of Up and Down) of the Dead with her Feather (Nothing).

The Balance of Ma'at

The Balance of Ma'at

As you can see the Square of the Cycle of the Four Elements is visible in the picture below. The total picture shows a Hexagram with a Center (The Cross).

The points that are missing in the Square are the top- and the bottom of the two triangels which are the Whole (Up, Heaven) and the not-Whole, Emptiness, the Bottom (Hell).

The Seal of Solomon

The Seal of Solomon

A hexagon is a 2D-projection of a Cube.

The hexagon of Solomon can be transformed into the Cube of Space of the Sefer Yetsirah.

Cube of Space

Cube of Space

The Cube of Space can be transformed into the Tree of Life.

The Tree of Life also called the tree of knowledge or world tree  connects heaven and underworld and all forms of creation and is portrayed in various religions and philosophies all over the world.

The Tree of Life shows the levels/scales (three) and possible paths of the Opus Magnum, the alchemical journey.

The Cube of Space can be transformed into the Tree of Life

The Cube of Space can be transformed into the Tree of Life.

The Spiral of Alchemy is about the Chemical Transformation of the Body by the Conceptual Transformation of the Mind.

About Truths for a Fact and Truths for a Reason

People have always believed in the fundamental character of binary oppositions like Hot & Cold and Wet & Dry are used in Alchemy.

In this part we move to the Field of Logic. In this case Hot/Cold and Wet/Dry transform into Necessary /Not-Necessary and Possible/not-Possible.

Chemical Wedding (Union of Opposites)

Chemical Wedding (Marriage of Opposites)

Oppositions can be divided in:

  1. Digital oppositions, contradictories, contain mutually exclusive terms (Gender (Male/Female)).
  2. Analogue oppositions, antonyms  or contraries: contain terms that are ordered on the same dimension (Temperature (Minimum->Cold/maximum->Hot)).
Square of Opposition

Square of Opposition

The doctrine of the square of opposition originated with Aristotle in the fourth century BC and has occurred in logic texts ever since.

The logical square is the result of two questions: Can two things be false together? Can two things be true together?

This gives 4 possibilities: no-no: contradiction (A/O, E/I); no-yes: subcontrariety (I/O); yes-no: contrariety (A/E); yes-yes: subalternation (A/I, E/O) better known as implication (A->B).

The four corners of the square represent the four basic forms of propositions recognized in classical logic:

  1. A propositions, or universal affirmatives take the form: All S are P.
  2. E propositions, or universal negations take the form: No S are P.
  3. I propositions, or particular affirmatives take the form: Some S are P.
  4. O propositions, or particular negations take the form: Some S are not P.

The square of opposition was debated for many reasons for more than two thousand years.

One of the discussions is about the difference between possible and necessary. In the so called Master Argument Diodorus proved that the future is as certain and defined as the past. The essence of logic (necessaty) implies the non-existence of freedom (possibility). X is possible if and only if X is necessary.

The term ‘possible’, in Aristotle’s view, is ambiguous. It has two senses known as one-sided possibility and two-sided possibility (or contingency). Being two-sided possible means being neither impossible nor necessary, and being one-sided possible simply means being not impossible.

Leibniz distinguished between necessary Truths for a Reason, which are true for a reason—i.e, their opposite is a contradiction—and contingent truths, (Truth for a Fact) such as the fact that the president of France is François Hollande. A contingent truth cannot be proved logically or mathematically; it is accidental, or historical (based on facts (events)).

About Geometric Logic and n-dimensional “Squares” of Opposition 

Modal Logic is about the fusion of necessity and possibility, contingency.

Logical Hexagon

Logical Hexagon

In Modal Logic the propositions are modelled in a logical hexagon where:

  1. A is interpreted as necessity: the two propositions must be either simultaneously true or simultaneously false. A is a Proof or Law.
  2. E is interpreted as impossibility. E is an Observation that contradicts the Proof of A.
  3. I is interpreted as possibility:  the truth of the propositions depends on the system of logic being considered . I is an Idea implied by the Proof that Contradicts E.
  4. is interpreted as ‘not necessarily’. O contradicts A.
  5. U is interpreted as non-contingency: neither logically necessary nor logically impossible, its truth or falsity can be established only by sensory observation.
  6. is interpreted as contingency: propositions that are neither true under every possible valuation (i.e. tautologies) nor false under every possible valuation (i.e. contradictions). Their truth depends on the truth of the facts that are part of the proposition. Y is a possible proven theory.

The Logical Hexagon has the same geometry as the Seal of Solomon. It contains the Square of Opposition (A,E,I,O).

The Logical Hexagon can be transformed just like the Seal of Solomon to the Cube of Space now called The Cube of Opposition.

The Logical Hexagon is used in many fields of Sciences like Musical Theory or Scientific Discovery.

The Hexagon of Opposition based on Musical Theory

The Hexagon of Opposition is used in Musical Theory

Every opposite can be defined by a string of zero’s and one’s like 1010. An opposite is 0101. This means that there are 2**4/2 = 4×4/2= 16 / 2 = 8 possible opposites. This is called the Octagon of Opposites.

The Octagon contains six reachable and two unreachable points in the Center (0000, 1111), the Empty Set (the Void, the Hole, Contradiction) or its Opposite (The Whole, Tautology).

Logical Geometry

Logical Geometry

The rhombic dodecahedron RDH with the standard bitstring decoration

Octagon of Opposition

It is clear that it must be possible to create higher dimensional models based on n-based-logics.

When n becomes very big the geometry will tend to a n-Dim circle in which every point is in opposition to the point at the other side.

The big problem with n-based logics is language. We don’t have the names to articulate the many grades of opposition that are possible.

The other problem is that a negation is not a symmetric operation (A = not-not-A) but a rotation with an angle 360/n.

The n-opposite-geometries are highly related to Simple Non-Abelian Groups (SNAGs). They play an important role in biology.

The last step is to transform the static n-opposite geometries by making n very large (infinite) to a dynamic “opposition field”.

Examples of Comparable Models

In current Psychology Hot & Cold are called Communion and Moist & Dry, Agency. Together they create the so called Interpersonal Circumplex.

Interpersonal Circumplex

The four stages of Learning by Jean Piaget.

The mathematical model behind the theory of Piaget is called the Klein Four Group or Identity/Negation/Reciprocity/Correlation-model.

Piaget

INRC-model of Piaget

INRC-model of Piaget

In the Science of Ecology (Panarchy) Agency & Communion are called Connectedness and Potential. The Panarchy model looks like a Mobius Ring.

panarchy model

panarchy model

A model that describes the Four Perspectives on Security:

Quaternity

The Semiotic Square of Greimas:

Semiotic Square

Semiotic Square

The Chinese Sheng-Cycle: The Chinese Five Element Model is comparable to the Western Four Element model. It contains as a Fifth Element, the Whole-Part-relationship (Earth, Observer State). Emptiness (Nothing, the Tao) is represented by the recursive Pentangle inside.

The Sheng Cycle

Tetralemma (Ancient Indian Logic)

Tetralemma (Ancient Indian Logic)

The lesson

When thou hast made the quadrangle round, then is all the secret found“.

The secret: It is impossible to move though the center because the paths that go through the center are a contradiction or a tautology (I am what I am, JHWH).

We have to move with the Cycle (making the rectangle round (a circle)), around the Singularity (the Hole of the Whole), going Up and going Down all the time.

The only way to solve this problem is to join the opposites by accepting only one thruth-value, by:

  1. Accepting everything (Wu Wei),
  2. Denying everything (Stoics) or
  3. Diminishing the amount of dimensions (“becoming Simple”, “like Children”) by moving up in abstraction (Hot & Cold -> Temperature -> Everything is Energy) to the level of zero dimensions, a point, becoming One with the First Matter (Tao/Vacuum).

“If we then become children, would we thus enter the kingdom?” Jesus said unto them, “When ye make the two one, and when you make the inside like unto the outside and the outside like unto the inside, and that which is above like unto that which is below, and when ye make the male and the female one and the same, so that the male no longer be male nor the female female; then will ye enter into the kingdom.” (Gospel of Thomas, Logion 22).

LINKS

About the Geometry of Negation

About the Logic of Music

About Wu Wei

About Modal Logic

About the Cube of Opposition

About Logical Geometry

About the Square of Religion

Semiotics for Beginners

About Holonomic Alchemy

About Paths of Change

About the Sheng Cycle

How to use the Square of Opposition as a Research Tool

About the Cube of Space of  Sefer Yetzirah

About Truth of Reason and Truth of Fact

Why Humans are Toolmakers

About Chemical Transformation (Cold Fusion)

About the Ars Generalis Ultima of Ramon Lull (1305)

About the Six Domains of  the Polynomic System of Value

About the Logic of Creation

About Leibniz Calculating Machine

About Zero Dimension 

Why Innovation is Re-Combination

How to Balance the Seal of Solomon

About Interpersonal Theory 

About Panarchy

About the Hexagon of Opposition

About n-based logics

About Flow-Systems

Anti-Fragility and the Square of Opposites

An Introduction to Hexagonal Geometry


Op weg naar de Persoonlijke Voedsel Monitor (in Dutch)

Friday, March 13th, 2015

Ik ben de enige zoon van een boer uit Wekerom en ben door mijn vader getraind in het boerenvak. Een paar jaar geleden werd ik uitgenodigd voor een bijeenkomst van investeerders in de voedselketen in Wageningen.

Hierdoor werd mijn latente interesse voor de landbouw weer aangewakkerd. Wat mij vooral begon te interesseren was de relatie voedsel en gezondheid. Door het netwerk werd ik steeds doorverwezen naar deskundigen op dit gebied.

Tot mijn verbazing bleek dat al die deskundigen grotendeels in het duister tasten ten aanzien van de relatie voedsel/gezondheid.

De reden was dat men zich veel te veel had geconcentreerd op de statistiek en onvoldoende had rekening gehouden met het feit dat de mensheid heel divers is.

Als je die diversiteit combineert met het feit dat alle omstandigheden ook weer specifiek zijn kom je uit op een omkering van alles.

De mens heeft behoefte aan specifiek voedsel in specifieke omstandigheden (“personalized food”).

Sinds een aantal jaren houd ik mij bezig met Smart Technology. Het woord Smart betekent dat het gedrag van de software niet is te onderscheiden van het gedrag van een mens. Een goed voorbeeld is de zelf-rijdende auto.

In dit document concentreer ik me op de “slimme” voedselketen.

Een slim systeem heeft zintuigen nodig (sensors), moet zelfstandig kunnen denken (analytics) en handelen (proces management) daarnaast moet het ook kunnen samenwerken (community) met mensen en andere slimme systemen en overzicht houden (monitoring).

Slimme systemen bewerkstelligen keten-integratie en keten-omkering.

Keten-integratie resulteert in het direct koppelen van consument en producent. De intermediair in de keten verdwijnt en wordt overgenomen door een (software)-infrastructuur die vaak wordt aangeduid met E-Commerce.

Consumenten kopen steeds meer hun producten in web-shops waarna de producten aan huis worden bezorgd. Het thuis bezorgen gaat een revolutie ontketenen in de stadslogistiek omdat het gebruikelijk concept van het centrale (of regionale) distributiecentrum niet meer nodig is als je instaat bent om verschillende logistieke stromen slim te combineren.

In het eerste stadium werd de web-shop vooral gebruikt om luxe goederen te verkopen maar sinds kort neemt het on-line kopen en bezorgen van voedsel enorm toe. Een deel of een groot deel van dit voedsel wordt in de nabijheid van de klant geproduceerd en werd vroeger op lokale markten verhandeld.

Door de globalisatie worden lokale producten nu de hele wereld over getransporteerd en vice-versa waardoor er erg veel energie verloren gaat.

Bewuste consumenten willen weer terug naar lokaal geproduceerde voeding. Dit geldt niet alleen voor voeding maar ook voor energie en werk. Er komt steeds meer behoefte aan zelfvoorziening (autarkie). Het is dan ook niet onwaarschijnlijk dat de lokale markt weer terugkomt.

Keten-omkering wil zeggen dat de consument en niet meer de producent aan het begin van de keten komt te staan. Die consument wordt nu het waarnemingsinstrument, de sensor, van de keten. Wat hem of haar aantrekt wordt uiteindelijk vertaald in een vraag. De grote vraag is hoe de consument zijn vraag kan articuleren.

Niet het produceren maar het consumeren wordt dominant in de waardeketen. De consument moet nog erg wennen aan het feit dat zijn vraag bepalend wordt voor het aanbod.

Steeds meer mensen beseffen dat voedsel heel belangrijk is voor hun welbevinden. Hierbij gaat het niet alleen om de ingrediënten maar ook om de wijze van de productie van deze ingrediënten in de voedselketen. Deze voedselketen integreert en keert net zo hard als alle andere waardeketens.

De diëtetiek, de voedingsleer, is een hele oude wetenschap.  In de preventieve holistische gezondheidsleer van Griekenland, Rome, China en India werd  er veel aandacht besteed aan voedsel.

Voedsel in de zin van kruiden was ook het belangrijkste middel om een ziekte te genezen. De kruiden zijn in de loop der tijd getransformeerd in chemische (farmaceutische) geneesmiddelen. Wat veel mensen niet beseffen is dat medicijnen ook voedsel zijn.

De oude wetenschappers waren op de hoogte van het specifieke van het lichaam en de persoonlijkheid en ontwikkelden ook classificaties (de humores en de temperamenten) die tot op heden worden gebruikt in de psychologie (Big Five).

De visie van de beroemde Hippocrates op de diëtetiek wijkt in zijn wezen niet zo erg af van de huidige visie over voedsel. Los daarvan is er erg veel veranderd en die verandering is veroorzaakt door de technologie.

In het begin van de 20ste eeuw kreeg de technologie invloed op de medische wetenschap. Er werd steeds meer kennis verkregen over de onderdelen van het menselijk lichaam waardoor de specialisatie enorm toenam. In 1930 was 25% van de medici gespecialiseerd in 1980 80%.

Door de specialistische visie op de mens is de kennis over de voedselverwerking in het lichaam enorm toegenomen en begint men na het uitzoeken van het menselijk DNA ook steeds meer zicht te krijgen op de specialistische invloed van voedsel op de gezondheid.

Door de specialisatie is het holistische karakter van de geneeskunst grotendeels verdwenen.

De invloed van de technologie op de voedselketen is enorm. De productieprocessen zijn opgeschaald en het voedsel is geoptimaliseerd zowel aan de buitenkant als aan de binnenkant. De tomaat van vroeger lijkt door de genetische manipulatie in niets op de tomaat van nu.

Het is de grote vraag of de ingrediënten van het huidige voedsel nog passen op het lichaam van toen.

Daarbij komt dat de bodem (‘de aarde”) steeds meer is ontdaan van zijn natuurlijke samenstelling waardoor ons voedsel belangrijke stoffen (zoals magnesium) mist.

De consument begint zich hiervan bewust te worden door allerlei publicaties en televisieprogramma’s en vraagt steeds duidelijker om gezond voedsel. Wat gezond is, is niet erg duidelijk. Er worden tientallen boeken op de markt gebracht die elkaar soms fors tegenspreken.

Om te voorkomen dat men door de bomen het bos niet meer blijft zien kan de technologie als hulpmiddel worden aangewend. Het wordt tijd voor de Persoonlijke Voedsel Monitor (PVM). Deze monitor moet de match maken tussen het voedsel en mens.

Wat er in het voedsel zit kan binnenkort door de persoonlijke spectrometer real-time in kaart worden gebracht. Op basis van het persoonlijke voedselprofiel kan dan worden bekeken of dit voedsel passend is.

Met behulp van lichaam-sensors in combinatie met een DNA-profiel kan real-time in kaart worden gebracht wat het lichaam op de lange en de korte termijn nodig en niet nodig heeft. Deze behoefte kan worden vertaald in ingrediënten en daarna in producten.

Daarnaast kan de PVM ook helpen bij het geven van inzicht in de relatie lichaam en voedsel door de koppeling aan een slim leersysteem (SLS).

Vraag en aanbod kunnen door de koppeling aan een E-Commerce systeem direct aan elkaar worden verbonden waardoor het “gezonde” voedsel “on demand” kan worden thuis bezorgd.

Als mensen hun persoonlijke data willen delen kunnen we met behulp van statistische analyse-software (“Big Data”) real-time wetenschappelijk onderzoek doen naar de relatie voedsel en gezondheid en de resultaten persoonlijk terugkoppelen.

Hierdoor kun je heel goed zien hoe je “het doet” ten opzichte van mensen die op je lijken. Indien er interesse is kunnen die mensen ook met elkaar in contact komen. Natuurlijk moet er hier goed aandacht worden besteed aan privacy.

LINKS

Over de geschiedenis van de gezondheidszorg

Over zelfvoorziening

Over voedsel en genetica

Over de persoonlijke voedselspectrometer

Over voedselsensors

Over het gebruik van massspectrometers in voedsel 

Over de persoonlijke spectrometer

About the Next Steps of the Future Center Smart Systems and the Leiden Center of Data Science

Sunday, May 4th, 2014

At 28-4-2014 the Future Center Smart Systems (FCSS) was launched At the same moment the Leiden Center of Data Science (LCDS) was announced. This is not a coincidence.

FCSS and LCDS are two parts of the same coin. LCDS is focused on the Science of Data and FCSS is focused on using the results of the Science of Data to build Smart Systems or to give the Science of Data interesting problems to solve. FCSS is Practice and LCDS is theory.

When we look at Wikipedia we see that the Data Sciences are defined as “The study of the generalizable extraction of knowledge from data”. Knowledge shows itself in this case as Models, Patterns and Laws (Rules).

The Data Sciences detect patterns based on facts and are an abstraction of the Scientific Process itself.  The Data Sciences are therefore also called E-Science. 

E-Science is a combination of:  Signal processing, Mathematics, Probability models, Machine learning, Statistical learning, Computer programming, Data engineering, Pattern recognition and learning, Visualization, Uncertainty modeling, Data warehousing, and High performance computing.

Because E-Science is an abstraction of Science it can be applied to every science you can think of. In the case of the LCDS the current sciences that are involved are Physics, Astronomy, Bio-Science (Leiden Bioscience Park), Life-Sciences (Dutch Techcenter for Life Sciences, DTL), Medical Sciences (LUMC), Law (Leiden Law School), Aviation (NLR), Mathematics and Informatics (LIACS).

The FCSS is not only about E-Science it is also about using the patterns that are discovered to control processes and influence humans. In this case we are interested in the developments in Value, Case & Process-managers,  Domain Models and Sensor-Technology. Theory is static and practice is dynamic. Theory becomes practice by doing.

In the long view we expect that the combination of Senses & Actions & Thinking Machines will lead to Autonomous Systems that will help and support Humans. These systems are sometimes called Robots because we believe Autonomous Systems look like us but an autonomous system like our Universe does not have to move itself.

The next step of the Future Center is to connect with practice, start with technology transfer and find out what the need is of the market.

The Future Center is already involved in some projects and we wants to start some more. If you are interested to participate in one of the projects or want to start a new projects send an email to hans.konstapel@gmail.com.

  • Smart System Architectures
Smart Systems need Smart System Architectures. They are a combination of existing architectures based on Process-Models & Sensor-Systems (the Sensory-Motor System) and new architecture that are related to Visualization (the Imagination), Analytics (Data, Process, Text, Software-mining (Thinking)) and Social Networks. (Emotions). The end state is called Global Brain (“The Singularity”).
  • Disclosure of Open Data (Repository, Data Warehouses/Data Cards, Visualization)
A lot of Open Data is entering the market. It is not clear where this data is situated and what the data means. In this case we need a Repository and tools to define what part of the data we need at this moment (a Data Warehouse, Data Cards). We need also tools to hide the complexity of the current open databases and makes it possible to show what is available (Visualization).
  • Smart Innovation (Business-model generation out of Big- & Open Data) 

There are already many on-line tools available that support the innovation process. The data that is used in these tools (for instance market-data) has to be gathered to validate the models. We want to use the Data-sciences to gather appropriate market-data and detect interesting business-opportunities, To do that we want to use Big- and especially Open Data. 

  • Smart Value Chain Integration & Reversal (Product Configurators, Data/Proces/Software-Mining, Intelligent User-Interfaces)
The value-chains are integrating and the customer is moving into control. Currently a value chain consists of many companies that use many not integrated and not connected legacy-systems. These systems contain data and process-models. We want to use the Data-Sciences to detect these models (Process-mining. Data-Mining, Software-Mining) and map them to available domain-models (ACCORD, ARTS,…) or develop shared domain-models. The data that is used in the value-chain can be mapped to a product-configurator. Last but not least the user-interaction with the customers has te be designed.
  • Smart Education (Just-in-Time Education)
Technology is changing fast. This has a huge impact on education. The current system of education is not able  to react to the fast moving technology-waves because it is created  to support the Industrial Revolution that ended around 1950. We are now beyond the next wave that is taking over manual work and moving into the next step in which the Human Brian is copied. The solution to this all, Life Long Education,  is already invented a long time ago but we are not implementing this solution because the Current Education System is aimed at preventive education, trying to train people in the first stage of their life. The solution is Just-in-Time-Education, training people at the moment they need knowledge (DeepQA) or experience (Simulators).
  • Smart Buildings & Building Process (with ABN AMRO Dialogs House)
The Building Industry is already using 3D-Models (BIM). A BIM-model is a low-level product-configurator but the model can be moved to a higher level in which it is possible to share (and sell) complete Models (for instance a Hospital). The models can be used to simulate every attribute of a building and let the customers play with possible designs. The models can be used to calculate risk and most important optimize existing buildings (Facility Management). When we combine this with sensor-technology we are able to create adaptable buildings.
  • Smart Food Chain & Dietetics
The Food Value Chain will revert and the customer will be in control. At this moment the customers are educated with theories about food that are changing fast. “Good” Food is time, context and body-dependent. We want to make tools that use personal sensors that show the customer what they have to eat to stay healthy and tell them where and how they can buy this food.
  • Food & Health (with the International Alliance of Future Centers)
It is not clear what the impact is of Food on our Health. In this project we will analyze the complete food-chain.
  • Smart Urban Space (The Self Actualizing City)
This is an integration of the concepts of the Smart City, Integrated Value Chains, the Creative City and Smart Social Networks.
  • Next Generation Media

Media are at this moment based on the Sender/Receiver-concept. We want to use the Data Sciences to detect patterns, transform these patterns into text and images and implement a feed-back process with the customers.

  • Next Generation Theatre
We want to use the concept of  5D Film to create a new type of sensory and emotional experience.
  • Next Generation Energy Systems
Implementing Autarkic Energy Systems.
  • Smart Mobility
Using new concepts like the Self-Driving Car & Sensor-Networks  to optimize mobility in Big Cities.
  • Social Enterprises (Impact Finance, Social Bonds, Circular Systems, Cooperatives, Complementary Currencies)
The next generation enterprises has to be aware and reduce its impact on society and environment. In this project we also look the finance of Social Enterprises (Impact Finance, Social Bonds) but also at the circular economy, new organizational structures (cooperations, ) and new financial systems based on complementary currencies.
  • Conflict-Resolution/E-Mediation
Preventing and resolving conflicts by implementing Smart Mediation.
  • Future Jobs (Unemployement & Sense-making, with the International Alliance of Future Centers)
What are the consequences of Smart Systems on employment?
  • Smart Care Systems

We want to use Smart Systems to help people that need Economic, Physical, Social and/or Mental Support.

  • Virtual Future Centers (with the International Alliance of Future Centers) 
Future Centers are currently location-based. Future Centers look like Smart Systems because they Sense their environment, react (Process Manager) on the Events that are happening, try to predict what will happen (Analytics), involve Networks (Communitiies of Practice, Interest and/or Affinity) and Scientific Knowledge Centers (like the LCDS), create a shared Vision and  put this vision into Action (Entrepeneurs, Innovators, Incubators). There are already many people busy with developing parts of the Virtual Future Center. We are currently designing an Architecture and will create an Alliance to join the efforts of all participants.
  • Next Generation Secure Data Centers
Smart Systems need Smart Data Centers.

LINKS

The Presentation of Prof. dr. H. J. van den Herik about Big Data and the Leiden Center of Data Science.

 

About Autarky

Thursday, October 11th, 2012

The amount of local cooperative energy-companies in the Netherlands (in 2012) is increasing. It all has to do with the decrease of the price of solar-sells but there is more at stake.

Local energy-companies are part of a movement aimed at Autarky. Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient.

The word Autarky comes from Greek αὐτάρκεια (autárkeia), itself from αὐτός (autós) = self and ἀρκέω (arkéo) which in its passive form means be satisfied, content or “Out of my own Power“.

Fractal Human Distribution Network

Fractal Human Energy Distribution Network

The need to become self-sufficient has certainly to do with the current economic-, ecological- and energy crisis. People are afraid that the supply of vital energy and food will suddenly stop or become priceless. This is not the only reason.

Some people think we are wasting our money, food and energy by producing nondurable throw-away goods in which the packaging is sometimes more important than the content. They want to create durable products and services. This is not the only reason.

Some people don’t trust the suppliers of their food and energy, their politicians and/or the caretakers of their savings, the banks, anymore. They believe that their food is intentionally manipulated, their savings are wasted, their country is sold out to the rich and their environment is polluted for just one simple reason, Greed, the opposite of “Being Satisfied”.

The people of the autarkic movement want to recreate the necessary functions (bank, energy, food, work, healthcare, government) themselves in a cooperative way in their own living context.

Atmospheric Energy Diagram

Atmospheric Energy Diagram

The local cooperatives  are now joining on a higher (mostly country) level and are  in need of a shared (real-time)infrastructure. The current infrastructure does not support flows that move between many participants (so called peer-to-peer-networks).

The current system is a Hierarchic Top Down System containing Huge Highways that are connected to Big Production-facilities. This makes it impossible to consolidate, share and distribute resources peer-to-peer on a local level.

The Electric Highway

The Top Down System has created Global Markets where the local production is sold  to the highest bidder.

The Global Markets are the playing field for advanced speculators that make a lot of money. After the deal is made the local production is transported to a far away destination. That is the reason why the Top Down Systems are integrated in world-wide Logistic Systems.

If we want to coordinate all the local initiatives we need advanced systems that Up- and download, control, predict, connect, share, balance and distribute vital local resources on the short and long term.

The Panarchy Cycle of an Ecology

The Panarchy Cycle of an Ecology

Examples of these systems can be found in “crowd funding“, “virtual power plants”  and “treasury management” (balancing many small amounts of Money at the short and long term).

In Nature we find comparable (Fractal) Distribution-Systems in the Lungs, the Arteries, Riverdelta, the Weather Cycle and Ecologies.

All of these fysical Flow Systems, that map 1 Resource-> on Many Resources or Many Resources->on 1 Resource,  are based on the third Law of Thermodynamics called Constructal Law.

Virtual Power Plant

Virtual Power Plant

In the philosophy of the Stoics and Cynics of Ancient Greece the perfect human was not only arete (“all-around excellent”) but also independent of every need. Arete was associated with a full life as a citizen of a city.

Later Spinoza (“On Human Freedom“), Rousseau and David Thoureau (Walden) have developed their own autarkic philosophy.

Autarky was the ideal of a complete man who needed no one and no organization. This ideal can also be found in Zen Buddhism, Taoist practise, Early Christians (Nazarites), the Catholic Order of the Franciscans and the Protestant Quakers.

In reality it is almost impossible to be completely self-sufficient as a lonely human being. We need others when we are young, sick and old and we need others because we are specialized (“Talented”). Autarky is a possible aim for a small community.

Resource Balancing in Nature (Lungs, RiverDelta)

Resource Balancing in Nature (Lungs, RiverDelta)

The religious, cultural and political movements at the left and the right aimed at living the “good life” (“Living Slow“) are converging in  the movement of the Cultural Creatives. The Cultural Creatives are the new Elite that is moving to the AND-state (Left AND Right).

They don’t believe in the old Competitive Ideologies (Socialist, Capitalist, Religious, Liberal, Nationalist, Conservative, Globalist, etc..) but want  to focus on the Shared Collaborative Values between all Humans. We all need Love, Food and Shelter.

The Stoic Zeno shows the Doors to Truth and False

The Stoic Zeno shows the Doors to Truth and False

Autarky has always been a major political aim of countries. Autarky is about the possibility to control your own future and to become independent of other powers that could use your dependency to tell you what to do to get what you desperately want.

At this moment the shortage of fossil fuels, especially oil and gaz, is used to influence the policy of other countries and is the cause of local conflicts in the Middle East.

China is buying all kinds of vital materials to make sure their economy will not become dependent on others. If they will succeed and nobody doubts about that, they will become the economic controlling power of the world.

Reaching a state of local autarky, being satisfied with what your environment provides you, has become the aim of the wordwide sustainability movement.

Total autarky is possible when you want to live as a stoic or a survivalist. Most people accept a more simple living, move off-the-grid and build autonomous buildings that make use of  renewable energy.

Allotment Garden

Allotment Garden

Others start to farm in their own backyard, join an allotment garden or move back-to-the-land and practice sustainable agriculture.  To handle their surpluses and shortages independent  local markets are created that make use of  alternative currencies.

A strive for (regional) Autarky pushes the need to innovate to a higher level because not all regions contain the right materials, knowledge or experience to realize everything everybody needs. To become fully Autarkic the Production and Consumption Systems in the Region have to be based on simple concepts and parts that are available everywhere. Simple concepts are concepts that are easely copied.

The only way to combine Simple and Complex concepts is to use the Concept of Self-Reference (Fractals). The only way to make use of parts that are available everywhere is to make use of the Simple Building Blocks of Nature. A good example is the use of algea in food processing.

The concept of Autonomy not only plays an important role on the many levels of human (personal, organization, country) and animal society (Competitive vs Collaborative (Ants)). It is also a major subject in the research of (Second-OrderCybernetics (Control Theory).

Self Reproducing Systems

Self Reproducing Fractal Systems

Second Order Cybernetics is concerned with the Control of the System of Systems (the Meta-System). Hierarchy is not the solution to this problem because it leads to the logical problem of Infinite Regress (“Turtles on turtles on … all the way down”).

The Meta-System is controlling, reproducing and balancing itself by a Fractal Feedback-Cycle that moves Backwards (Consumption) and Forwards (Production).

The concept of Self-Reproduction is called Autopoiesis or Autocatalysis. The Design Philosophy of Cradle to Cradle is a good example of Autopoiesis.

A System is an Autarky if all its Levels are capable of Self-Reproduction.

If a human wants to become self-sufficient he has to accept and develop his own talent and find complementary people so he is able to create a Self-Reproducing Unit.

The smallest Self-Reproducing Unit in Human Society is the Family living in one House. This House has to produce more than enough Energy and the Garden has to produce more than enough food to support the Family.

Garden City (Culemborg, the Netherlands)

Garden City (Culemborg, the Netherlands)

If we cluster all these Self-Reproducing Families/Houses & Gardens in a small City the chances are high that the combined talents of the families will be able to supply every profession needed if the people of the city want to Live a Simple Life.

It is also possible that the surplusses and shortages of the families can be compensated by creating a Market on the level of the small City or one level higher, the Region.

An Autarkic Movement becomes an Aggressive Competitive Nationalistic Movement when the Citizens of the Country feel that their Country is plundered by outsiders and their Leaders promise to get it all back by expanding the Space to Live (“Lebensraum“) to facilitate everything that is needed.

This happened when Germany was preparing for War after the enormous reparation payments of 132 billion gold marks to the Winners of World War I.

The Autarkic Movement could also become a Peaceful Cooperative Social Movement like the Movement of Gandhi in India when the people accept the Good Life they already live and want to share the surpluses with others who are in a worse state.

LINKS

Dutch Report about Local Energy Companies (in Dutch)

About the house that produces his own energy (Passive House)

The Complete Book of Self Sufficiency

About Close-Loops Systems

About Smart Grids

About Fractal Distribution Systems

Jerry Rifkin: About the Distributed Economy

The John Seymour School for Self Sufficiency

About Entrainment

About the EU Policy of Smart Specialization of Regions

About Darwin and Collaboration 

About Artificial Life

About Smart Technology

About the Thermodynamics of Living Systems

About Worldviews (How to find Complementary People)

A City is an Organism

About the Viable Systems Model of Stafford Beer

About Garden City

Gandhi’s view on Capitalism

The Autarkic Dreams of Germany

 

About Intelligent Design

Tuesday, April 17th, 2012

Thermodynamics, the Science of Heat, became an important science in the 19th century when physicists started to improve the Steam-Machine. This blog is about a recently discovered law of Thermodynamics called the Constructal Law.

The Constructal Law describes How Intelligent Systems emerge out of the Laws of Thermodynamics.

Heat is Random Motion

According to Thermodynamics the evolution of the universe has been characterized by an on-going transformation from a simple, restricted, highly condensed, homogeneous state (the Big Bang) to an increasingly complex, widely dispersed, dynamic, multipotent, granular diversity.

Energy always moves from High to Low Temperature. This is the main reason why most of the energy of Earth comes from our Sun.

With help of the Electro-Magnetic radiation of the Sun we call Light, plants, algae and bacteria transform simple molecules into complex organic structures (Biomass = Potential Chemical Energy) and store the energy of the Sun. Bacteria and Fungi brake up these structures, produce heat, reduce the complexity, and close the Cycle.

The Input of the Heat of the Sun has to be compensated by a comparable Output of Radiation otherwise Earth would be burned instantly. The difference between the Input and Output of Energy is transformed into Movements on Earth.

The Earth’s climate is a huge flow system. It circulates air and water from the tropics to the poles and back. These flows develop as air and water move from hot to cold regions, a result of variation in the heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun.

The Earth is not only heated by the Sun. The hot kernel of the Earth is surrounded by a small crust. At certain places on Earth and the Sea the rotating pool of the magma-ocean produces a lot of energy.

The Earth with its solar heat input, heat rejection, and wheels of atmospheric and oceanic circulation, is a heat engine without shaft. Its maximized mechanical power cannot be delivered, but is instead destined to dissipate through air and water friction and other forms of heat loss. It produces maximum power, which it then dissipates at a maximum rate.

The earth is wasting a lot of energy because the transmission of  most of its energy is not contained in a Tube-like-system.

The system maximizes the sum of the work done driving the planetary circulation, and the heat rejected back to space at the cold end of the heat engine.

When the speed of the planetary circulation is low, so are the turbulent losses. As speed increases, up to a certain point the sum of work done (circulation speed) and heat rejected also increasing until the turbulence starts to interfere with the circulation and  actually decrease the total of work done and heat rejected. That is the point, “the edge of turbulence”,  at which the system will naturally run.

Every flow system tries to find the perfect balance between movement and friction.

The interesting point is that friction is movement in opposition to itself.

Clouds on the Edge of Turbulence

The biomass on Earth is direct or later (Oil, Gaz, Coal) consumed by all kinds of organisms. In Food-Webs Organisms are consumed by other organisms.

We, the Humans, describe the interaction of the organisms in the Food-Webs as a Struggle for Live, a Survival of the Fittest, but the flow of energy in the food webs could also be seen as an adaptive chain of chemical reactions that are performed in self-moving, self-reproducing chemical factories.

Energy is Potential Movement. The potential energy stored in the biomass on Earth is transformed into circular movement (kinetic energy). During this transformation Heat is produced. Heat is the waste produced by a restrained non-effective movement.

The energy of the Sun produces all kinds of movements on Earth. Examples are river-delta’s, our respiratory system and the weather-system.

Flow Systems that move from one  to many always look like a leaf or a tree

Flow Systems that move from One to Many always look like a Leaf or a Tree. Left a River Delta is shown. Right a picture of the Lungs is displayed.

According to Constructal Theory the generation of design (configuration, patterns, geometry, shape, structure, rhythm) in nature is a physical phenomenon that unites all animate and inanimate systems. Design in Nature always shows itself as systems that flow and improve themselves.  Systems improve themselves because the movement from chaos to order takes many discrete steps.

Biological organisms are flow systems. River basins are flow systems. A Tree is a flow system. The Traffic System is a flow system. The City of Paris is a flow system. The Financial Market is a flow system. The Internet is a flow system. A Proces-Manager is a flow system.

Flow Systems

All these flow systems must be structured (architecturally designed) in such a way that the currents that flow (Life Energy, Water, Air, Electricity, Gaz, People, Cars, Trains, Airplanes, Content, Money) increasingly get to where they need to go. This gives shape and structure to everything that evolves over time.

Flow Systems always remove the Resistance to the Flow themselves.

Constructal Law is formulated as follows: “For a finite-size system to persist in time (to live), it must evolve in such a way that it provides easier access to the imposed currents that flow through it.”.

Nature always provides Resistance to Change (Heat, Erosion, Friction) and this resistance is provided by the Systems of the Past. The current Order resists the potential Chaos of Free Moving Energy.

The Paths of Change of our Universe always move in the same way. The pattern looks like a Moebius Ring, the number 8, because this is the only way to cope with the polarity of the movements. In a Moebius Ring two Opposite Cyclic Movements are perfectly United.

A Moebius Ring is a 2D-structure that operates in 3D because it needs a Twist to operate.

According to Constructal Theory the Energy of the Sun creates two types of Systems called Engines and Brakes.

Engines are the most effective and efficient states in the evolution of our Universe. They have found the best way to cope with the resistance that is provided by the Brakes. Brakes are the old systems like trees, forests and natural or constructed dams that slow down the movement so the potential energy can be stored.

If the Energy of the Sun is not stored,  the Self-Reproducing Systems are unable to evolve to a higher level of organization.  If every Resistance would be gone the Flow-Systems would Flow in a Radial Pattern to every Direction possible.

If we remove the Natural Brakes (Forests, River-delta’s) the Expansive Flow-systems will take over control and the Smart Highly Improbable Next Generation Brake Systems, the Organisms would die.

We, the Humans, are here to Resist the Engines that give the Flow-Systems the opportunity to make Everything the Same. Every Thing has to become the Same because the Universe does not discriminate. Every configuration has the same chance to be alive.

Dependent on the type of flow there are standard solutions to the dualities that are provided by the eternal battle between engine (movement) and brake (not-movement).

Paris is a Flow System

The standard solution can be calculated using the Laws of Thermodynamics. Tree (or Leaf)-shaped fractal systems are for example the best solution for a One-to-Many (or Many-to-One) Flow. The Flow Systems always converge to these Shapes.

Our Earth is rotating, spinning and moving around our moving Sun. The influx of Energy on every area on Earth is changing all the time.

This means that every Flow-System on Earth has to adapt to the short term and long term changing Energy Input of the Sun.

The stability of a Flow-System, the Resistance to Change, is highly dependent on the Resilience of the System.

According to the theory of Panarchy the Resilience of a System is dependent on the Potential and the Connectedness of a System.

In  the Exploitation/Conservation phase of the Adaptive Panarchy-Cycle the Constructal Engines become more efficient (producing more Potential) and Connected. This means that the amount of possible paths in the River-delta of the System is reduced. This amount determinates the resilience of the system.

At the state of maximum production and maximum connection (conservation) the system is spending all its potential at self-reproduction and is highly vulnerable to external disturbances. At a certain moment when a disturbance destroys the majority of the paths the system collapses (release).

Revolt: A small Wildfire can destroy a complete Ecology

The bits and pieces, the components, of the scattered ecology are reassembled sometimes in a different way (reorganization) and the system starts again most of the time on a higher level of organization.

Kleiber's law

Kleiber’s Law is an example of the Constructal Law. It shows the many levels of organization that have occured since the chemical factories of the bacteria started to work together. Kleiber’s Law can be extented to the level of the Community and the City.

The Panarchy Cycle is Self-Similar. It repeats itself on many Scales. The higher the scale the bigger the impact and the slower change takes place.

The Scales are interconnected. A huge disturbance on a lower scale (Revolt) can have an huge impact on a higher scale when both cycles are moving into the Release State.

A Slow moving High Level Cycle can help to restructure a fast moving cycle by providing the template of the way the components were originally assembled (its CommunityDNA) (Remember).

Constructal Law is a Law of Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics has evolved into a Statistical Theory called Statistical Mechanics. To calculate a probability you have to define the Space of all Possibilities of a System, the Phase Space.

When you don’t know what a system will look like it is impossible to calculate the Phase Space. To calculate the possibilities of Constructal Law you have to imagine the possible constructions of Mother Nature.

It is possible to play with Probability Theory without knowing the exact Phase Space. In this case you have to look at the probabilities of the probabilities. These probabilities are described by the Triangle of Pascal. Behind the Triangle of Pascal a new Triangular Structure shows itself. This pattern goes on and on until the primary Triangle of Creation, the Holy Trinity, is reached.

The Trinity is a combination of Desire (Mother, Female, Expansion, FLOW), Control (Father, Male, Compression, BRAKE) and the combination of both Expansion AND Compression also called the Void or the Tao. In Physics the Void is called the Vacuum or the Zero-Point-Field.

The Triangular Pattern behind the Triangle of Pascal

When we have moved back in time and have reached the state of the Trinity we are very close to the Big Bang. The Big Bang is a result of the Union of the Opposites (Yin/Yang, Male/Female, Matter/Anti-Matter, Expansion/Compression) that both came out of the Void.

The Vacuum is the Eternal Flow System of Creation. It contains everything that is possible even the impossible, the Empty Set.

The Tao is like a well: 

used but never used up.

It is like the eternal void:

filled with infinite possibilities.

It is hidden but always present.

I don’t know who gave birth to it.

It is older than God.

(Tao Te Ching 4)

According to Constructal Law every finite-size system must evolve in such a way that it provides easier access to the imposed currents that flow through it.

The Tao is the Channel of the Energy of Life. If Constructal Law is Right we have to give easier access to this Flow. We have to become the River to move to our final destination, the Sea of the Nothing.

LINKS 

A video about Constructal Theory

About the Higgs Field and the Big Bang

Why the Objects in the Universe are of Different Size

About Innovation and Thermodynamics 

About the Big Bang

About Friction

About the Big Freeze

About the Constructal Theory of David Deutsch

The Website about Constructal Theory

An Introduction into Constructal Theory

About Morphology

About Panarchy

About Kleiber’s Law

About Genetic Similarity Theory

Why a City is an Organism

About the Triangle of Pascal and the Holy Trinity

About the Holy Trinity

About Constructal Law and the Trinity

Attraction + Obstacles = Excitement 

About the Law of three & Gurdjieff

 

 

Over Veerkracht (Resilience) (in Dutch)

Monday, April 2nd, 2012

De leer van de thermodynamica is in de 19e eeuw ontstaan uit natuurkundig onderzoek dat werd uitgevoerd om de efficiëntie van de stoommachine te verbeteren. Inmiddels heeft deze wetenschap belangrijke wetten over het Universum ontdekt.

Volgens de thermodynamica beweegt de energie in het Universum op de lange termijn zich van een onmogelijke extreem hete situatie, de Big Bang, naar een toestand van extreme kou en een hoge waarschijnlijkheid, de Big Freeze, waarin alles netjes uniform verdeeld is. Het universum beweegt van extreme chaos naar extreme ordening.

Energie stroomt daarom altijd van hoge (chaos) naar lage temperatuur (orde). Vrijwel alle energie op aarde komt van de zon in de vorm van electro-magnetische straling. Met behulp van deze zonnestraling transformeren planten, algen en bacteriën simpele chemische structuren in complexe biomassa (chemische energie). Bacteriën en schimmels breken deze structuren weer af waardoor de cyclus wordt gesloten.

Biomassa wordt door de rest van de organismen op aarde direct of soms veel later (olie/gas/steenkool) geconsumeerd. Het consumeren van de primaire zonne-energie vindt plaats in voedselketens waarin de organismen ook zelf weer worden geconsumeerd.

Vanuit ons menselijk perspectief interpreteren wij het consumeren van de participanten in een voedselketen als een competitie (“survival of the fittest”) maar we kunnen het ook zien als een uiterst flexibele keten van chemische reacties die worden uitgevoerd in bewegende zichzelf reproducerende chemische fabrieken.

 Energie is de mogelijkheid om iets in beweging te krijgen of te houden. De opgeslagen (potentiële) energie in de aarde wordt soms in meerdere stappen omgezet in beweging (kinetische energie). Tijdens deze omzetting gaat er altijd warmte verloren (dissipatie, wrijving, weerstand, erosie).

De energiestroom van de zon wekt door de rotatie van de aarde stroom-systemen (flow-systems) op. Stroom-systemen hebben een boom-structuur als de stroom van een punt naar een oppervlak of een volume gaat. Een voorbeeld zijn het weersysteem en een meanderende rivier-delta. De longen en de bloedvaten in ons lichaam hebben precies dezelfde opbouw omdat hetzelfde proces ook in ons lichaam optreedt.

Volgens de Constructal Theory van Adrian Bejan verbeteren de stroomsystemen zich steeds opnieuw en dat doen ze door gebruik te maken van de permanente slijtage (dissipatie, wrijving, weerstand, erosie) die de stroombeweging veroorzaakt.  Uiteindelijk vindt er altijd weer ergens een doorbraak plaats in de meander.

Adrian Bejan heeft de Constructal Theory volledig analytisch afgeleid uit de wetten van de Thermodynamica. Hij  beschouwt het principe van de verbeterende stroomsystemen (“construction”)  als een Hoofdwet van de Thermodynamica. Volgens hem is ontwerpen niet een intelligente actie maar een volstrekt logisch gevolg van de werking van ons Universum.

De stroom van onmogelijkheid naar uniformiteit, van hoge onwaarschijnlijkheid naar hoge waarschijnlijkheid gaat gepaard met allerlei tussenstadia waarin de bestaande structuren de nieuwe structuren de weg wijzen.

De doorbraken in de meanderende stroompatronen maken beter gebruik van de huidige mogelijkheden maar de oude paden behouden lange tijd hun functie. Hierdoor is een stroomsysteem niet afhankelijk van één pad en is daardoor ook bestand tegen calamiteiten (bijv. een sterk verhoogde regenval in het stroomgebied van de rivier).

Het systeem waar de stroomsystemen onderdeel van uitmaken bestaat uit Machines (Constructal Engines) en Barrières (Brakes).

De machines en de barrieres zorgen ervoor dat de aarde niet te warm of te koud wordt.

De machines zoeken de weg van de minste weerstand, optimaliseren de stroom, bouwen structuren op, slopen de barrieres, produceren kinetische energie en minimaliseren de slijtage. De machines slechten het pad naar de Big Freeze waarin alles gelijk zal zijn en alles stil zal staan.

De barrières bevatten potentiële energie, leveren de weerstand om de minste weerstand te vinden, slopen de machines, optimaliseren daardoor de dissipatie en produceren een maximale hoeveelheid straling met een hogere golflengte als de binnenkomende zonnestraling die de aarde weer verlaat.

Produceren (Machines) en Consumeren (Vernietigen, Slijten) houden het wankele evenwicht van Moeder Aarde in stand.

De evolutie van ecologieën, steden, organismen (wet van Kleiber), talen (wet van Zipf), organen (de longen, bloedvaten), sporten en technologieclusters voldoen aan de Constructal Theory.

In 2002 hebben Holling en Gunderson het boek Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems gepubliceerd.

Panarchy bevat een integrale visie op de evolutie en de adaptieve cyclus van  de constructal engines die men ecosystemen noemt.

Panarchy is ontstaan door het combineren van ogenschijnlijk conflicterende theorieën. Die theorieën leken conflicterend omdat ze betrekking hadden op de verschillende fasen (Zie Plaatje Phase Space hieronder) van de adaptieve cyclus die een ecologie doorloopt.

De combinatie van de vier mogelijke fasenruimten levert een op-en neergaande cyclus op waarin op een zeker moment een sprong (bifurcatie) wordt gemaakt naar een compleet nieuwe ruimte. Nadat deze sprong heeft plaatsvonden stopt de dynamiek van de oude ecologie.

De meest herkenbare fase is de Exploitatie-fase (B).  Dit is de opgaande lijn waarin de ecologie een hoge mate van orde bereikt en overschotten (Potential) produceert.

De vier fasen van de Panarchy Cyclus voorgesteld als een landschap met een rollende bal

Aan het eind van deze fase neemt de potentie af en wordt er van alles gedaan om de levensduur van de ecologie zo lang mogelijk te rekken (C -Conservation). In deze fase zijn de structuren verouderd geraakt en zijn er op allerlei plaatsen reeds alternatieven (bypass) ontstaan die beter passen op de huidige vraag naar beweging.

De ecologie is in de conservatie-fase vrijwel tot stilstand gekomen en besteed al zijn energie aan het onderhouden  van zijn eigen structuur.

Tijdens de langzaam opgaande lijn van de Exploitatie-fase neemt de verbondenheid en vooral de afhankelijkheid (Connectedness) tussen de participanten onderling enorm toe waardoor de ecologie steeds kwetsbaarder wordt voor verstoringen.

De constructal engines in de ecologie gaan steeds efficienter samenwerken wat ten koste gaat van de diversiteit en de variatie in de ecologie.

De ecologie kan verstoringen opvangen totdat de  verschillende paden nog niet zijn dichtgeslibd maar een verstoring die alle paden tegelijkertijd raakt is dodelijk.

Op het laatst wordt de Veerkracht (Resilience) enorm op de proef gesteld en kan het gebeuren dat de Ecologie volledig ten onder gaat (Release) of na een grondige Reorganisatie weer aan een nieuwe levensloop kan beginnen.

De resilience van een ecologie wordt gemeten door de snelheid te meten waarmee een ecologie zich weer herstelt van een verstoring.

Volgens Panarchy beweegt een Ecologie zich op verschillende schalen en plaatsen en kan op die plaatsen in verschillende fasen verkeren waardoor er allerlei soorten van interactie mogelijk zijn. Hoe hoger de schaal hoe langzamer de cyclus verloopt. Hoge schalen dempen de fluctuaties van de lagere schalen.

Een snelle lokale reorganisatie kan zich plotseling heel snel verspreiden (een lopend vuur (Revolt)) terwijl een langzame geleidelijke ontwikkeling (een organisatie) een snelle ontwikkeling weer kan dempen of tot stilstand kan brengen (de organisatie van de Brandweer (Remember)).

Panarchy is een Zelf-Refererend Cyclus-Model dat bestaat uit Vier Fasen en (minstens) drie Schaalniveaus.  De panarchische golfbeweging bestaat uit twee stappen n.l. de  positieve weg Omhoog naar de Top (exploitation, conservation)  en de negatieve weg Omlaag naar het Dal (depressie, reorganization).

Op een bepaald moment kan de golfbeweging zich splitsen waardoor een nieuw (ander) niveau van organisatie optreedt. Deze sprongen doen zich volgens een vaste regelmaat voor.

Als we kijken naar terminologie en inhoud valt het op dat er een groot verband bestaat tussen Ecologische-, Economische- en Persoonlijkheidstheorien. De natuur, de economie en de mens lijken onderhevig te zijn aan dezelfde wetten.

De theorie over de Menselijke Natuur heeft erg veel weg van de Theorie die wij over de Natuur zelf hebben ontwikkeld. De mens is een zelfstandig bewegende ecologie, een stromend stroomsysteem waaraan een groot aantal participanten deelnemen.

Bacteria wisselen DNA uit

Die participanten hebben zich in de loop der tijd verenigd omdat een samenwerkingsverband veel efficienter bleek te zijn dan een solitaire ontwikkeling.

In het begin bestond het samenwerkingsverband uitsluitend uit simpele chemische fabriekjes, bacteriën, die genetische ontwerpinformatie (DNA) van hun fabriekjes uitwisselenden. De eerste fundamentele stap in de samenwerking van de bacterien was de statische spons. De mens heeft erg veel ontwerp-informatie gemeen met de spons.

Spons

Later gingen de organismen bewegen en waarnemen. Hierdoor gingen ze als individuen samenwerken met andere organismen die genetisch op hen leken (zie Genetic Similarity Theory).  Het uitwisselen en combineren van ontwerp-informatie ging gewoon door (sex).

In volgende fasen ontstonden er hogere ordeningen, zoals lichamen die lichamen konden bevatten (huizen, steden, vliegtuigen, onderzeeboten en auto’s).

Op dit moment is de (grote) stad het hoogste niveau van koppeling maar niets houdt de “Constructal Law” (of de Entropie) tegen om een ordening te gaan scheppen op  het niveau land of aarde.

Dat betekent dat er nieuwe slagaderen moeten komen om de ontwerp-informatie en de energie die tussen de grote steden gaat stromen te faciliteren. Overduidelijk is dat het Internet de basis vormt van het zenuwstelsel van de aardse informatievoorziening.

De thermodynamica is een statistische theorie. De kansverdeling van een Systeem wordt de Entropie van het Systeem genoemd.

Om een kans te kunnen berekenen moet je de kansruimte (de Phase Space) bepalen. Die bestaat uit alle mogelijkheden.

Het aardige is dat je niet hoeft te beschikken over kennis van alle combinaties van alle componenten van een specifiek systeem om erg veel te weten te komen over een kansruimte.

Je kunt gaan spelen met willekeurige componenten (a,b,c,d,e,….), de combinaties in een matrix stoppen, gaan tellen en patronen zoeken in de getallen die er dan worden gevonden. Je bent dan bezig met de statistiek van de statistiek of beter de waarschijnlijkheid van de waarschijnlijkheid. De mogelijke patronen worden beschreven in de Driehoek van Pascal.

Wat dan blijkt is dat er achter het patroon van Pascal weer een patroon zit (zie plaatje).  Dat patroon bevat wederom driehoeken en het is zeer waarschjinlijk dat er achter de driehoeken weer driehoeken zitten. Driehoeken in driehoeken in driehoeken in…. noemt men een fractal, een zelf-herhaling.

De  (on)waarschijnlijkheid is eigenlijk heel mooi en vooral ook simpel geordend en komt voort uit een zichzelf herhalend patroon, de Drie-Eenheid, dat in iedere godsdienst op aarde voorkomt.

Wetenschap en Godsdienst gaan uiteindelijk over hetzelfde.

LINKS

Over de Big Bang

Over Thermodynamica

Over Constructal Theory

Waarom een stad een organisme is

Waarom de genen bepalen wie we aardig vinden 

Over Pan en Anarchie

Over de Wet van Kleiber

Over de orde achter de wanorde (Over de Driehoek van Pascal)

Over de Uitgebreide Driehoek van Pascal

Over de drie-eenheid.

A City is an Organism

Saturday, February 12th, 2011

The System of Life is growing in size and in complexity, and so do the infrastructures sustaining it.

In 2008 the point was reached where more than 50% of the world population lives in cities. That percentage is growing. By 2030, over 60% of the world’s population – nearly five billion people – will be living in urban area.

The System of Life is generating Super Organisms and the City is one of them.

Urbanization is only a relatively recent phenomenon. As far as we now know urbanization started in Mesopotamia around 4000 – 3500 BC.

For the Ancient Mesopotamians, the cities were the centers of life. Their beginning of time was not a Garden of Eden, but rather an ancient site called Eridu, which they believed was the first city ever to be created.  The creator of Eridu was Enki, the God who came out of the Deep Waters of the Ocean  (the Abzu). The city of Eridu was destroyed by the Great Flood in 3117 BC.

Every time one of the Rulers of a City took control over many Cities and a State was created with a new Center, the Capital. In the Center of the Capital the Palace of the Ruler was situated. What we see is an Expanding Pattern in which the same Structure repeats itself all the Time.

Initially the two life-essential resources for cities were Water and Food.

As Cities grew and as technology evolved, the supply of these resources became dependent on energy for processing, for pumps and for transportation. In the process, cities and their resources evolved into a system of life energized by the individuals that populate cities, and fuel its dynamics.

mexico-city

Mexico-City

Kleiber's law

Kleiber's law

About the Law of Kleiber

The Law of Kleiber shows that Bottum-Up Structures are more efficient than Top-Down Structures.

It also shows that Big Structures are more efficient than Small Structures. The Law is applicable from the level of the Bacteria to the Level of the City and higher.

These two statements are a contradiction until we realize that there are two ways of looking at the same structure. One view is the Top-Down View. The other is the Bottom Up View. When we look Down we see a huge Hierarchy and start to believe that Big is Beautiful.

When we look Up we see that all the work is done by Small Cooperative Components starting at the Bottom with the Bacteria.

The Law of Kleiber is explained by the fact that all the organisms (including the Cities) contain the Same Fractal Structure.

Bacteria exchange their DNA

Bacteria exchange their DNA

About DNA

In the Beginning the Chemical Soup generated Self-Reproducing Chemical Factories. These Factories combined into bigger Factories by exchanging and combining their Factory-Designs (DNA-parts).

Every time when the Factories fused they became more Efficient, Bigger, Stronger, Older and therefore more Competitive. When the Factories became more Competitive they started to Protect themselves against the other Factories.

To Protect themselves the Multi-Cellular Systems began to Sense in Many Directions and became better and better in Predicting the Future.

One of our Ancient Ancestors is the Sponge which is a static Cluster of Bacteria. Scientist have detected that the DNA of the Sponge has a lot in common with the Human DNA. The Sponge contains the Basic Fractal Structure, the Tube.

In a later stage our Ancestors developed something we call a Brain. The Brain is used to Sense the Now and Predict the Future.

The Human is a Moving Sponge who is able to Imagine. With his Imagination the Human is capable to Change the Future (and the Past).

Sponge

The Sponge, the Tube, is the Basic Structure

One of the Bilateria: The Octopus

The Octopus is a Sponge with a Brain.

About Innovation

The Law of Kleiber can be explained by the principle of Self-Reference (Similarity,  Fractals).

The Small Structures at the Bottum combine into comparable structures on a higher level.

What we don’t see is that the structures on every level can be decomposed in the Same (DNA-)Components with a different Scale and a different Name.

Innovation is nothing but a  Combination of  the Components in many different ways until all the combinations are made.

At that moment One of the Combinations becomes the new DNA and a new Level is explored.

Life explores every possible path.

About Cities

A City is a Combination of Houses.

A City protects a Cluster of Houses. A House protects a Cluster of Humans and a Human protects a Cluster of Organs.

All the way down to the Bacteria,  Cooperative Clusters are formed that give the participants a more Secure Way to Live.

A House is a Body. It supports the Body but it also contains all the Bodily Functions.

If we provide the House with these Bodily Functions the House becomes more Sustainable. It is possible to regenerate the Waste that the Humans produce into Energy just as the Liver is doing in our Body.

If we Cluster the Bodily Houses into a City and we provide the City with the same functions of the Body we are able to create structures that are independent of the input of external Top-Down Sources of Energy and Food.

If we are able to detect the DNA of the House and the DNA of the City we are able to Compose new Types of Houses and Cities that are Adaptable, Scalable,  highly Sustainable and are also in Balance with Nature.

It will also be  much more easy to Destroy or Move buildings and cities to another Place without the production of Waste.

looking-to-toledo1

Toledo (Spain)

About Synchronization

In the Miedeval City the Major Cycle was the Cycle of the Seasons. In the Modern City we have become almost independent of the Cycles. We import Food and Energy out of every place in the World.

It takes a Lot of Energy to transport the Food and Energy and Many Places on Earth are dependent on a small amount of other Places that contain the Sources of our always increasing Need to Survive the Effects of our Environment.

When a lot of People (The Slaves) are dependent on a small amount of people (The Masters), the Masters start to dominate the others and increase their Power until Eternity. Power is the most important Addiction of the Humans.

The problem becomes bigger when we realize that many people are producing Food and Energy but are themselves not able to use the Food and the Energy they are producing.

The independence of the Cycles has created a huge unbalance. This unbalance is not only visible in the City but in every place on Earth that is providing Energy and Food to sustain the Modern City.

The only solution to this problem is to create self-sustaining (autarkic) Cities that are able to supply their own food, water  and energy.

Paris

The kernels of Paris

When we want to restore Balance we have to Synchronize the Cycles in the City.  This can be done with the help of Smart Technology (Sensors, Actuators, Analytics) but we can also make use of very old fashioned techniques that were used in the Middle Ages.

When Humans communicate from the Heart and focus on the same subject, the Humans start to Synchronize. They become a  Group.

The most important structure in the Miedeval City to Synchronize its inhabitants was the Building of the Heart, the Church.   The Church was always situated in the Center and was visible from a long distance. The Church was also the only place where people were always Protected.

The Human Heart is doing the same thing as the Church is doing in the City. It connects the Mind with the Organs of  the Body and the Pericardium provides one of the major Rythms of the Human Body.

If we want to Synchronize the City we have to create a Center where People are able to Commun(e)nicate about the Shared Goals of the City. The most important way to share can be found in the Human Culture. The Centres have to contain all the ways Human Culture is performed.

chartres4

The Spiraling Spiral in the Memory Palace of Chartres, the Symbol of the Fractal Universe

About the Memory Palace

Art, Music and Singing were United in the Medieval Cathedrals. The Medieval Cathedrals also contained all the Knowledge (The Memory Palace)  that was needed to understand the Universe.

If we want to Synchronize the Modern City we have to build Modern Cathedrals in the Center of the Center and use them as Places to Commune, to Educate, to Make Music, to Dance and to Sing.

We have to design them as Modern Memory Palaces (Simulators) to teach the Masses about the Fractal Universe and give them Feedback about the State of their own Environment.

sagrada-familia-barcelona-projection

The Sagrada Familia in Barcelona (Antoni Gaudi)

LINKS

This is a  presentation about The City as an Organism

Why the Tube is such an Important Structure

About The Law of Kleiber

Why Innovation is a Combination of Combinations

An Interview with Geoffrey West of the Santa Fe Institute about the Law of Kleiber

About Thermo-Economics

About the Autarkic City

About Cybernetics

About Synchronization

How Gaudi used a Machine to design the Sagrada Familia

About Machines that generate Architectures

How the Heart Synchronizes the Body

About Super Organisms

About Smart Technology

About Addiction

About the Master/Slave-relationship

About the Heart

Why the Cathedral contained all the Knowledge that was Needed

About the start of Civilization

About the Law of KLeiber

Friday, October 29th, 2010

A power law relates one variable to another raised to a constant power. The general form takes y = xa, where y and x are variables, and a is a constant exponent.

A power law exhibits the property of scale invariance. When you multiply the Scale (x) with a factor b the function (y =  baxa) does not change its Shape.

In 1817 Goethe wrote his book ”Zur Morphologie“. This book was the start of a new science called Morphology, the Science of the Shapes.

In his book Goethe describes the so called Uhrplant, the Primal Plant, which is based on the shape of the Leaf. Goethe believed that every Plant was a Leaf within a Leaf within a Leaf.

At the time of Goethe the concept of the fractal was not known. It was developed in 1975 by Benois Mandelbrot (“The Fractal Geometry of Nature”).

A fractal is a self-similar structure. It’s shape repeats itself on every level of expansion.  Some fractals are scale-invariant.

Scale Invariance in the Leaf

The scale invariant fractal structure of the Leaf

About Kleiber’s Law

Metabolism is the process by which your body converts what you eat and drink into energy. During this complex biochemical process, calories in food and beverages are combined with oxygen to release the energy your body needs to function.

The oldest and best known Power Law is Kleiber’s law devised by the Swiss-American zoologist Max Kleiber in 1932.

Kleiber’s Law, MR = W3/4, describes the relationship of the metabolic rate (MR) to the biomass W, raised to an exponent.

Kleiber’s law means that a cat’s metabolic rate is not a hundred or 21.5 times greater than a mouse’s, but about 31.6 — 100 to the three-quarter power.

This relationship seems to hold across the animal kingdom  and it has since been extended all the way down to single-celled organisms, and possibly within the cells themselves to the internal structures called mitochondria, the cellular powerplants, that turn nutrients into energy. Mitochondria have many features in common with bacteria.

The law of Kleiber is  also applicable to super-organisms” like ant colonies, Cities and Eco-Systems.

Because of Economies of Scale, larger and more complex forms of organisms need less energy for each individual cell. They grow and reproduce more slowly and they live longer.

Kleiber's law

Kleiber's law

About Fractals and Kleiber’s Law

Kleiber’s law can be explained from a general model that describes how essentialmaterials are transported through Space-Filling Fractal Networks of Branching Tubes.

Goethe was right. The leaf is a one of the fundamental structures of Nature.

The factor 3/4 (3/3+1)  is a consequence of the fact that a Fractal Structure has to incorporate a not-Fractal Structure, 3-Dimensional Space.

One of the Bilateria: The Octopus

One of our fellow Bilaterians: The Octopus

About Bilateria

About 590 million years ago, the Central Nervous System (CNS), the Brain, appeared.

The organisms with a CNS (including the Humans), the Bilateria, are able to Act and React to a Possible Harmful Stimulus.

The CNS of the Bilateria is  a result of  an Increase in Competition between the Life Forms that came out of the Continuing Fusion of  the Cooperative Life Forms, the Bacteria. The first step in this proces was the Tube of the Sponge.

The fundamental Bilaterian Body Shape is a Tube running from Mouth to Anus, and a second Tube called the Notochord, with an especially large Sphere at the front, called the “Brain“.

The Bilateria have Five Body Spheres (1) the Brain; (2) the Spinal Cord; (3) the Heart and Lungs; (4) the Digestive Organs and Kidneys; (5) the Bladder and Reproductive organs.

Lung

About the Tiny Spheres of the Lungs

When we look at the Lungs, one of the Fractal Tube-like branching-structures of the human organism, we can see that the Branches end in Nodes called the alveoli (“little cavities“). The end-nodes of the branching system are tiny Spheres.

Alveoli

The Alveoli use another basic structure of Nature: The Sphere

In the tiny Spheres the Exchange takes place of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen between the Lungs and the Blood-Vessels. Each human lung contains about 600 million alveoli.

Water diffuses from the alveoli cells into the alveoli so that they are constantly moist.  Oxygen dissolves in this water before diffusing through the cells into the blood.

The Oxygen-rich blood returns to the Heart via the pulmonary veins to be pumped back into circulation. The Carbon Dioxide is pumped out by the Lungs.

In the many million Small Spherical End-Nodes Two Circulatory Systems, the Cardiovascular System (Heart) and Pulmonary System (Lungs), are Connected.

The Big Structures of Nature are able to Scale because the Connection-Points of the Networks are Very Small.

They are reusable on Every Scale that is Bigger than the Scale of the Connection Points.

We will see that all the other Fractal Systems in our Body are based on the Same Principle.

Villi

Villi

About the Tube of the Digestive System

The Tube contains the Digestive System. It breaks-down larger food molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed into the blood stream. This happens in the Small Intestine in the vili and microvilli.

The villi (“shaggy hair“)  are tiny, finger-like projections that are approximately 0.5-1mm in length. The microvilli are mechanosensors and have a lot in common with the flagellum (“the roter“) of a bacterium. Microvilli appear in many places in the body. They are also of importance on the cell surface of white blood cells, as they aid in the migration of white blood cells.

The Tube of our Digestive System is highly similar to the Tube of the Sponge, the first fusion of the Bacteria in a  more efficient metabolic structure.

The Output part of the Tube is called the Large Intestine (Colon). Its function is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter, and then to pass Useless Waste Material from the body. The large intestine houses over 700 species of bacteria that perform a variety of functions.

Liver

The Liver Fractal

About the Chemical Factory of the Liver Cell.

The Liver is  a Fractal Branching System that detoxifies harmful substances absorbed via the Small Intestines.  It’s basic structure is the Liver Cell.

The Chemical reactions in the liver cells produces a lot of waste heat. This is carried round the body in the blood and warms less active regions.

The Liver regulates the amount of Blood Sugar, Lipids, Amino Acids.  The Liver is the Storage House of  Blood, Iron, Vitamine A, D, B12  and Clycogen, the Source of Energy of the Body.

The Liver produces Bile that is stored in the Gall Bladder. Bile is used to dissolve fat.

White Blood Cell

The White Blood Cell

About the Spleen and the Immune System

Another Fractal Branching System, the Lymphatic System ( “The Immune System“, Spleen),  maintains the health of the body by protecting it from invasions by harmful pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These pathogens are the cause of many diseases, so it is necessary to detect and eliminate them rapidly.

The Lymphatic System is connected to the Blood System and produces the White Blood Cells (Lymphocites).  The Lymphocites are the Basic Unit of the Human Defense System. They look like Bacteria.

A lymphocite fits with a pathogen

A lymphocite fits with a pathogen

The surface of a lymphocyte is covered with a large number of identical receptors. Recognition and destruction occurs when the receptors of the lymphocyte fit like a key into the surface of the pathogen.

The Immune System is a Highly Adaptive System. It is able to generate new types of Lymphocites out of a Library of DNA-components.

Nephron

Nephron

About the Kidneys and the Bladder

The Kidneys serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes which are diverted to the urinary bladder. The Nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. In humans, a normal kidney contains 800,000 to 1.5 million nephrons. Nephrons are wave-like structures. Its chief function is to regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium salts by filtering the blood.

About the Electro Magnetic System

The last  Fractal Branching System, the Meridians, is a Fast Electro-Magnetic Channel that connects to Organs to the Spine and the CNS.

The Ancient Chinese Scientists believed that this System pumps its Energy, the Chi Force, out of the Earth Magnetic Field.

The Ancient Egyptian Scientists believed the same thing. They named  the Four Cavities the Four Suns of Horus and the Spine, the Djed Pillar (Dj means “Snake”).

The Five Organs of Acupuncture

The Five Systems of Acupuncture

About the number Five

The number Five (4 +1 ) plays an important role in Ancient Chinese Medicine.

The Central Fractal System, the One (1), the Fire System, the Blood System, with its Center the Heart,  contains Four (4) Links to the Other Systems.

The Four Systems are combinations of Two Forces, Expansion and Compression.

The Two Forces came out of One Force (“The Void“).

Two Systems contain the same combination (Expansion x Expansion (Wood, Gall Bladder, Liver, Three Heater), Compression x Compression (Metal, Lungs)).

Two Systems combine Expansion and Compression in a different order (Expansion x Compression, Compression x Expansion). They create a Wave (Water, Bladder, Kidney) or Spiral -like (Earth, Immune System) structures.

The Five Spheres of the Body are incorporated in one Super Protective Sphere, the Coelum, the Skin.

In the Human Embryo the First step of Division of the Cells is between the Coelum,the Multi-Cellar Body, and the Brain, the CNS. In the first step the One was divided into the Two, the Actor and the Monitor.

The CNS  “mirrors” the activities of  the Body and acts as a “predictive simulator”.

The Shape of the CNS is a mirror (Up-Side-Down) of the Shape of the Multic-Cellular Body.

The Bilateria are a Fuse of two Organisms in which one organism changed into the Body and the other changed into the Brain.

These two structures are always competing in the Human Being.

The Brain is Looking Up at the Sky. The Body is Looking Down at Mother Earth, it’s Creator.

The Brain and the Body are United in  the Heart, the Balancer of Body and Soul and the Keeper of the Rhythm (The Pericardium).

Sponge

Sponge, The Tube

About Bacteria

The Body Shape of the Tube was inherited from the first Multi-Cellular Organism, the Sponge. The Sponge is a  Static Cluster of Amoeba, free moving bacteria, that are propelled by their flagellum (a Roter).

Bacterium

The Basic Building Block of the Body, the Bacterium

Bacteria are small chemical factories that are able to share and combine their production processes by exchanging DNA.

With their flagellum the Bacteria Explore the environment to find the chemical food they need. When they have found food the Circulation of the Flagellum moves into the Opposite Direction.

The bacterium integrates incoming chemical signals during a few-second period of its travels, and adjusts its direction of advance accordingly.

The integration is achieved through temporary chemical modifications to molecules located in the bounding membrane, which transfer nutrients to the cytoplasm, and also through changes to certain other molecules in the interior of the cell. Such integration is essentially a short-term memory mechanism.

Bacteria exchange their DNA

Bacteria exchange their DNA

At a certain moment the Bacteria got together because the Sponge is a much more Efficient Metabolic Structure than a group of Free Moving Bacteria.

Strangely enough the DNA of the Sponge already contains the complete Bleuprint of the Humans.

Scientists now believe that most species on earth are a result of a loss of DNA from the original Bleuprint that was created when the Bacteria finally fused into one Organism.

About the Nano-Level

Recently scientists have found Electric Fields as strong as 15 million volts per meter in the Nano-Parts of the Cells. These fields are as strong as those produced in lightning bolts.

It’s not clear what causes these strong fields or what they might mean but they could account for a until now unknown (by Science) or well-known (by the Old Scientists, Chi) Source of  Bodily Energy.

The nano-parts of the Cell could be the very very very small universal building blocks of Nature.

What has Happened?

In the beginning the Chemical Soup generated Self-Reproducing Chemical Factories.

These Factories combined into bigger Factories by exchanging and combining their factory-designs.

Every time when the Factories fused they became more Efficient, Bigger, Stronger, Older and therefore more Competitive.

When the Factories became more competitive they had to Protect themselves against the other Factories.

To Protect themselves the Multi-Cellular Systems started to Sense in Many Directions.

In the first step a Nerve-Net was created.

In the second step one part of the Organism turned Upside-Down and became a Specialized Predictive System (the CNS).

This part fused with the Bodily Part creating one Organism that contained Two Organisms.

The Bilateria, the Organisms with Two Complementary Parts, Body and Mind, were born.

Some of the Bilateria called Humans fused in Social Structures and the Social Structures fused and fused and became more efficient, bigger, stronger, older and therefore more competitive.

In due time they will Rule the Earth and will start to create bigger and bigger systems until they will rule the complete Universe.

To make this possible the Humans need every other part of Nature to Sustain their Growth. This will certainly result in a huge Collapse of their own Eco-System.

The main reason this is happening is that the Humans forgot to Copy the Designs of Mother Nature.

The Brain (Thinking and Sensing, Left Brain), Looking Up at the Sky,  believed it could do a much Better Job than it’s counterpart the Multi-Cellular Body (Emotions and Imagination, Right Brain), Looking Down at the Earth, the Source of All Creation.

Kleiber’s Law shows that we are now using 122 times more Energy per Person than we really would need if we would Scale in the right way.

What can we learn from Kleiber’s Law?

All organisms including the humans depend for their maintenance and reproduction on the close integration of numerous subunits.

These components need to beserviced in a relatively `democratic’ and efficient fashionto supply energy, remove waste  and regulate activity.

Natural Selection solved this problem byevolving hierarchical fractal-like branching networks, whichdistribute Energy, Information and Materials between Big Reservoirs (“Lungs”) and Small Connection Points (“Alveoli”) of other Circulatory Systems (“Blood”).

This Fractal Bottum-Up approach is highly effective and efficient.

The not-fractal, Top-Down,  machinery designed by the Humans is Scaled with a factor 1 so we can improve a lot by copying Mother Nature.

LINKS

About Goethe and Morphology

About the Heart Chakra or Why the Heart connects the Brain and the Body

How to use the Heart to find Balance

About the Heart and Ethics

Why Humans look a lot like Bacteria

About Kleibers Law and the Rain Forest

About the Five Worldviews

A movie about Fractal Structures in Nature

About the Fusion of Water in the Cell

About the Number Five in Chinese Medicine

Why Humans are part of Super Organisms

How the Humans evolved out of the Bacteria

About the Left and the Right Brain

About the Void

How the Heart synchronizes the Body

About the Fast Transmisson Channel in the Body

About Kleiber’s Law

A general model to explain Kleiber’s Law

About Kleiber’s Law and the Growth of Cities

About the Immune System

About Bacteria

About the Law of Kleiber and Ant Colonies

The terrestrial evolution of metabolism and life

A movie about the origin of vertebrates