Posts Tagged ‘clock’

About Entrainment

Thursday, August 26th, 2010

In 1665 the Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens noticed that two pendulum clocks in his room tended to Swing in Sync. The same happens with fireflies, cardiac pacemaker cells,  menstrual cycles, birds in flight, walking, dancing, circadian rhythms in animals, quantum gravity theory, dialogues and people in a crowd.

Two connected Systems always Entrain because Every System in our Universe Vibrates and is connected.

birds in sync

Birds in Sync

When the Parts are  connected, the Rhythm of the Whole controls the Rhythm of the Parts.

The transformations of the seperate parts takes place in two steps. In the first step the variance of the frequencies of the parts is reduced but the oscillators remain incoherent, each running near its natural frequency, until a certain threshold is crossed. Then the oscillators begin to synchronize spontaneously. The effect is somewhat like the outbreak of synchronous applause after a magnificent concert.

To make the transformation possible the Parts have to adjust their behavior. They have to move with the Rhythm of the Flow of the Central Clock. At the end of the transformation from isolated Parts to the Whole the Parts are the Same. They are Copying each other.

When people are copying other people they lose their identity and move into a trance-state. The same effect can be accomplished with hypnosis.  When people are in a trance-state it is easy to manipulate them.

About Copying

Humans are Copiers. When we look at the Science of Coupled Oscillators it becomes clear that Copying is not an intentional act. People and other Systems are more or less forced to copy others when the frequencies of their systems are within a certain bandwith.

When people are close and are focused on a shared target (a soccer match, a concert, a conversation, a dance, a common goal) the human parts start to synchronize and become a Crowd, an entity that starts to act on its own.

About Communication

The word “communion” means “becoming a union“. All communication arises through Synchronization. All communications are dances that coordinate the rhythmic processes shared among the engaging systems.

Communication is not a transmission of information, but rather a coordination of behavior among living organisms through Mutual Structural Coupling. Just like the Crowd, a communication, starts to live a life of its own, when the exchange of the vibrations of the conversation starts to synchronize. This happens within seconds.

conversation1

In the 1960’s, William Condon of Boston University School of Medicine pioneered the empirical study of communication as coupling. In the microanalysis of a few seconds of film he was astonished to find how the voice and bodily movements of speaker and listener were coordinated within intervals as short as 20 milliseconds.

Condon introduced the term entrainment to describe the coupled behavior. He noted that: “Communication is thus like a dance, with everyone engaged in intricate and shared movements across many subtle dimensions, yet all strangely oblivious that they are doing so“.

Coupling begins with getting the attention of other organisms, or more accurately, with distracting the organisms from other engagements so they are able to discern and respond to this engagement.

When the Oscillations of two Systems are outside a certain bandwith it looks like the most powerful system takes over control. The frequency of the synchronized system is a mean and when big numbers and small numbers are added the small numbers simply disappear. This situation is called an Overload.

Overloads are able to kill small systems because the small system is unable to cope with the huge pertuberations. People with a Dominant Personality are able to force (to entrain) Dependent people to copy their behavior.

About Synchronization

A System of N coupled different oscillators creates a very complex almost unsolvable mathematical problem. In 1975 Charles Peskin formulated the conjecture  that Systems would eventually synchronize even when the parts are not identical. In 1990 the conjecture has been proven by Strogatz and Mirollo.

Systems of Coupled Oscillators show four states called Phase Locking (Synchronization), Phase Drift (“Chaos“)  and Amplitude Death (“Order“). In the last state the oscillations stop completely.  The fourth state called a Chimera is a combination of a synchronized and a drifting state.

The most important issue to notice is the fact that the state of Amplitude Death is what we call Order. It is an exceptional state that can be reached when the exchange of information between the states is “compensating” the vibrations of the states or when the System is “compressed” into a Singularity.

synchronization

Most Systems are oscillating (“Cyclic“) and are in a Phase Drift (“Chaos“) or a Chimera trying to reach some sort of Synchronicity with the other connected Systems. In Nature every System is connected to every other System because of the Electro-Magnetic (and Sound) Fields they share.

Systems of Coupled Oscillators behave differently when the connections between the parts are delayed. It this case highly identical parts start to behave as not identical parts. When a delay occurs the stable rhythm of the heart can suddenly stop, resulting in a sudden death.

About the Circadian Clock

In order to cope with and to predict 24-hour rhythms in the environment, such as light and darkness, temperature or the availability of food, most, if not all, organisms have Circadian (“Daily“) Timing Systems. These systems generate circadian rhythms in a wide range of behavioral and physiological processes.

For most animal species, a main circadian pacemaker has been identified in an anatomically defined location in or close to the brain. During the last years, however, it has become clear that circadian systems are complex and that additional oscillators exist, both within and outside the central nervous system.

The Peripheral Circadian Clocks are situated in the Heart, the Liver, the Lungs and the Kidney. These organs are the same “organs” that are used in Chinese Acupuncture which is not strange because the Aim of Acupuncture is to Balance the Electro Magnetic Field in the Body.

For a correct functioning of the circadian timing system, these oscillators should be synchronized to one another and properly phased to the environmental cycle.

Synchronization between the oscillators occurs via interactions or coupling pathways, whereas the light-dark cycle is used for synchronization to the outside world.

The most important mammalian circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) at the base of the hypothalamus in the brain.

From the suprachiasmatic nucleus, nerve impulses travel via the sympathetic nervous system to the pineal gland and inhibit the production of melatonin. At night, these impulses stop and melatonin production ensues and is released into the body.

In fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds, the pineal gland appears to be directly sensitive to small amounts of light that penetrate the skin and skull.

In mammals, with increased development of the cerebral hemispheres, the pineal body came to lie deeper within the brain and indirect stimulation of the pineal gland by light via the retina came to be more important. The Suprachiasmatic Nuclei are connected to the Outer Eye and the Inner Eye, the Pineal Gland.

The Pineal Gland is called the 6th Chakra, the Third Eye (or the Eye of Horus), the Seat of the Imagination.  The Imagination, the Central Clock of our Body, is “in control” of all the other Clocks in our Body.

With the Help of our Imagination we are able to Cure and to Kill the Body.

pineal

Pineal Gland

About the Pineal Gland

The Earth is a huge magnetic sphere. The E/M field of the Earth varies in strength and consistency through the ages. Our bodies own magnetic frequencies and our bio-field patterns react to this variance of the Earth’s field.

The pineal gland is the principal structure in the brain that is directly sensitive to the Earth’s magnetic field. The Pineal Gland Senses the Field.  To sense the Field the Pineal Gland contains small calcite crystals.

Our bone structure Converts Vibrational Energy into Magnetic and Electric Energy. When the bone is bent it produces an E/M-field. This E/M-field interacts with the Pineal Gland and creates a Feed-Back Cycle.

The E/M-field of our Body, the Aura, is a combination of all kind of waves. A special type of wave-structure is called a Standing Wave.

When the E/M-field acts as a Standing Wave all the waves are in harmony and conserve structure. The Human body is in harmony when the total field of all the separate E/M-fields of the Body act as a Standing Wave.

The Standing Wave appears when the Spinal Wave of the Vertebrae of the Body is in a special Alignment.  If this happens the Standing Wave of the Spine Resonates with the Standing Wave of the Earth. At that moment the Kundalini Rises and the Pineal Gland reacts with a Huge Mystical Experience.

About the Heart

The heart beats about once a second throughout your life. These regular contractions pump blood to the Upper (Head) and the Lower part of the body and are driven by electrical impulses from a natural pacemaker inside the heart.

This pacemaker, known as the sino-atrial node, responds to signals from the Central Circadian Clock situated in the Hypothalamus that changes the heart rate according to the body’s needs (“the action potential“), making it slower when resting and faster during exercise.The rhythmic contractions of the heart are triggered by waves of electrical activity that spread from the sino-atrial node throughout the heart muscle.

There are small fluctuations in the time intervals between beats that are fractal in nature, and a loss in this variability is a sign of cardiac ill health. However, a cardiac arrhythmia, in which the rhythm of electrical waves that drive the heart is broken, can be lethal.

A loss in the synchronized rhythm of the heart causes different parts of the atrial or ventricular muscle to contract at different times, undermining the pumping action of the heart. An arrhythmia therefore leads to the mechanical failure of the heart.

The propagation of excitations in heart tissue can be described in terms of travelling waves with a velocity of about 0.5 m s-1 and an amplitude given by the action potential. Since the action potential lasts for several hundreds of milliseconds, a single wave extends over a distance of about 10 cm. This means that a normal human heart is hardly large enough to contain a single wave.

In the heart the wave propagates around a circular obstacle. The wave repeatedly travels along the same path at a frequency given by the wave velocity divided by the circumference of the obstacle.

If the radius is gradually decreased, the frequency increases until the wavefront of a new wave catches up with the tail of the previous wave. If the radius is made even smaller, the wave is forced to adopt a spiral shape that continues to rotate around a central core. Spiral  Waves have been observed in numerous chemical and physical experiments.

The Wave Structure of the Heart resembles the Wave Structure of the Universe. This could be the reason why the Heart plays such  an important role in many Religions.

When the Wave Structure of the Heart is coherent with the Wave Structure of the Whole, the Rhythm of your Life is in Sync with the Rhythm of the Universe.

The Pacemaker Cells are called the Heart Chakra, the 4th Chakra. The Heart Chakra acts as the Balance Point for all the Chakras.

The Balancing Point is the Middle of two Triangels related to  the Head and the Body that rotate With- and Counter-the-Clock creating a Moebius Ring.  The Pineal Gland, the Central Clock, is part of the Upper Triangel of the Mind.

Spiral Waves in the Heart

Chemical Spiral Waves

Chemical Spiral Waves

About Cymatics

In 1967, the late Hans Jenny, a Swiss doctor, artist, and researcher, published the book Cymatics,  The Structure and Dynamics of Waves and Vibrations. In this book Jenny showed what happens when one takes various materials like sand, spores, iron filings, water, and viscous substances, and places them on vibrating metal plates and membranes.

What then appears are shapes and motion- patterns which vary from the nearly perfectly ordered and stationary to those that are turbulently developing, organic, and constantly in motion.

When Jenny experimented with Fluids of various kinds he produced Wave motions, Spirals, and wave-like patterns in Continuous Circulation.

These patterns are the same patterns that are produced by Coupled Oscillators. This is not strange because Sound Waves are highly comparable to Electro Magnetic Waves.

With the help of simple tools it is possible to Simulate the Creation and Expansion of the Universe.

We don’t need very complicated tools to observe the Whole. The Whole shows its patterns everywhere, even in your bathtub.

The Whirpool Galaxy

The Whirpool Galaxy

About the Creation of the Universe

In beginning the Void, the Zero Point Field,  rotated in Silence until a Huge Action Potential disturbed its Eternal Rest.

The Void was in a state of Amplitude Death until a Statistical Fluctuation, an Act of Creation, moved the System into a Chimera and later a Phase Drift.

Out of the Phase Drift Two Coupled Oscillators (Yin & Yang) appeared that moved With- and Against the Clock creating a Spiral Motion, a Vortex.

The Two Coupled Oscillators were each others Complement because two Coupled Oscillators are always Complementary.

After a while the Phase Drift generated Four and More Oscillators and Space started to Expand.

The pattern of this Expansion is governed by the Metallic Mean, which generates Fluent or Quasi Crystals. Fluent Crystals are the basic structure of the Electro Magnetic System of the Human. Scientists believe that the basic structure of our Universe is a Fluent Crystal, a Hall of Mirrors.

Quasi Crystals

Quasi Crystals

Space stops expanding when the Unbalance of the Energy of the Act of Creation is compensated by the amount of Oscillators (Strings) of Expanding Space.

At that moment the Universe will move into the State of Synchronization and all the Parts will move with the Rhythm of the Central Clock, the Tao.

When this happens the Universe starts to contract until Space has reached the Void.

In the last step the Oscillation will stop and the Void and Amplitude Death will appear again.

LINKS

How bacteria entrain

Steven Strogatz: About Coupled Oscillators and Biology

A lecture about Coupled Oscillators

A presentation about Coupled Oscillators

About Engagement

About Standing Waves

About the Electro Magnetic Field in the Body

About the Cardiac Pacemaker Cells

About Cymatics

About the Heart Chakra

About Stress and the Action Potential

About the Zero Point Field

About the Metallic Mean

About the Hall of Mirrors

A Very Strange Way to Explain the Current Crisis

Thursday, September 25th, 2008

I wrote and thought a lot about Time and Time Travel. My investigations made it clear to me that Time Travel must be possible and is also happening. Most people are not aware of the Cyclic Patterns of Time.

They think Time is a Line extending into Infinity. The Cyclic Patterns are moving With the Clock and Counter the Clock. At this moment The Cycles are Reversing in Time. This explains the current Crisis.

The conclusion of my research in Time was that we are traveling through a Vibrating Static Structure, A Fluent Crystal, which contains a huge amount of possible paths. We have Free Choice to travel the many Paths but the Amount of Possible Choices is fixed.

When we are traveling and return at the same point we started our traveling, we have gone through a Cycle.

When you go to work in the morning and return at home in the evening and repeat this sequence day after day you are moving through a very simple cycle. When you Repeat the Same Mistakes all the Time you are moving through a Cycle. When you are Born and Die you are moving through a Cycle called Life.

Cycles can be very complex. They are sometimes so complex that you are not aware you are repeating the same pattern all the time. You are experiencing the Feeling of Freedom of Choice because you are not Observing Your Path.

When you are Capable of Observing Your Path the Cyclic Behavior Ends. You Watch the Cycle but you are not In the Cycle. You are freed from the Cycle when you don’t make a Choice at all. This is what the Chinese Masters call the Tao.

Cycles basically move in two directions. They move With the Clock and Counter the Clock. Our Clocks move With the Clock so we assume that Time is moving With the Clock. When we move Counter the Clock we are moving Back in Time.

Cycles With the Clock, are Positive, Generating, Cycles.

Cycles Counter the Clock , are Negative, Destructive, Cycles.

The direction of a rotation is called Spin.

If we combine two Cycles that are moving With AND Counter the Clock an interesting structure appears. This Structure is called the Moebius Ring and is often used to represent the Symbol of Infinity, the Lemniscate or Ourobouros (A Snake).

The Moebius Ring is a very interesting structure because it does not have an Above and an Under. When you are traveling the Boundary you are always traveling the Same Surface. The Moebius Ring is easily constructed by connecting the two ends of a strip of twisted paper.

To Change the Direction of a Cycle you have to introduce a Twist.

To Travel Time you to have to Twist Time.

The Twist is an interesting concept. One of the Questions you could ask is if You would experience a Twist when it happened. The answer is Yes and No. Yes, when the Twist is an Up or Down Peak (An Event). No, when the Twist is a smooth path.

The most interesting Peak Experience in Life is Death. At that time the Cycle of Life is closed and another Cycle with a different Spin starts. Many cultures believe the Cycle of Death is real. In Western Society many people believe the Cycle of Death is non existent. Scientists are spending a lot of time to prove that the moment of Death is the End of Everything.

History is moving through Cycles. At some point in time many people feel History is Repeating Itself. Most of the time people believe the Cycles are moving into a certain direction. They are moving UP and DOWN. When you look at the Economic Cycles the data show that the Economic Cycles are Moving UP.

In reality the UP Cycle behind the Economic Cycle is another Cycle that is in its UP-state. Behind this Cycle is another (Long-Term) Cycle and another Cycle and …but somewhere the Cycle of Cycles (A Spiral) is Closed in Itself (A Spiraling Spiral). Just like the Moebius Ring there is no Above and Under. We are (Time-)traveling a Boundary that is closed in itself.

I don’t think many people will disagree with the concept of Cycles in History. The Theory of Economic Cycles has proven itself without any Doubt.

I don’t think many people understand that Cycles are moving in two directions. They believe the Cycles are moving With the Clock. If you believe Cycles move With the Clock it is easy to see that the Seasons are a beautiful Metaphor to understand Cyclic Behavior.

But what will happen when the Cycles of History move Counter the Clock???

If we would move through time Counter the Clock History would repeat itself just like History is Repeating Itself when we move With the Clock but the Stages of the Cycle (The Seasons) would show themselves in a Different Order.

If the Cycle With the Clock is an UP Cycle, the Cycle Counter the Clock would be a Down Cycle.

If you read the references in this Blog you will see that Western Culture is (or was) moving Counter The Clock, a CYCLE of DESTRUCTION.

The Cycle of Destruction (Capitalism, Materialism) was seen as a positive Cycle by many People but now they are becoming Aware of Reality. Western Culture is destructing Nature. It is not only destructing Nature but it is also destructing Human Culture.

At a certain point in time the Cycle HAS TO REVERSE. This TWIST is a Peak Experience, a Major Crisis. I hope You now See what is really Happening. We are Reversing the Cycle and the new Cycle is a GENERATING CYCLE. We are really Moving UP into a new state of Consciousnesa. This new state is not the state people who love materialism and capitalism (and War and Destruction and Greed and Control and Desire and …) will like.

LINKS

About The Twist in History

 About the Twist in Literature

About Cyclic Behavior in History

About Cyclic Behavior in History

Using the Seasons to Understand Cycles

 

Why Traveling Time is Really no Problem at All

Wednesday, February 27th, 2008

Human perception is perhaps an illusion. If we understand how the illusion is created we are able to understand what is behind the veil of our senses. When people are is this state the quality of the “calculated” present lowers.

It becomes more vague. This effect “proves” that we are part of a Holographic System. In a Holograpic System the parts contain data about the Whole but when a “part of the parts” is united the quality of the “picture” goes down.

The senses are sampling data at a certain rate. The samples are combined in a “picture” of reality”. In the next step the pictures (Gestalts) are combined into a flow. The senses can be compared with a movie-camera and the brain produces the movie.

Memory is the most important reason why we don’t see what really ”is”. We are extremely biased by our experience of the past. The Gestalts trigger “old movies” that are stored in the long term memory. These old movies are integrated into the projection on our internal screen.

Our Memory is also the main reason why time is slowing down when we get older. When we are not flexible (a rigid or dominant memory) the amount of new experiences slows down and our experience of time changes accordingly.

The basic building block of experience is called the specious time. Its duration is about 1 second (about three notes of music).

The frequency of sampling can be changed. If this happens it looks like “time slows down”. Slowing down time happens when people are in a very distressful situation (an accident) or in a meditative state.

The clock that is managing the sampling process (the Zeitgeber) is synchronized with our external clock, the Sun. The Sun controls the so called Circadian Rhythm in our body.

Not only the senses are managed by a dedicated clock, The Circadian master is the conductor of a huge number of peripheral clocks, including those found in heart, liver, lung, and retina cells (Eyes).

When the circadian rhythm is destroyed organisms display many physiological problems, including infertility, high cholesterol, and conditions that resemble diabetes, obesity, and metabolic disorders.

The location of the master clock can be found in a network of neurons in the hypothalamus called the superchiasmatic nuclei, or SCN. When the connection with SCN is broken the other clocks don’t lose their rhythms. They lose synchrony and start to work alone.

The Zeitgeber of the specious moment are called thalamocortical oscillations. They connect the thalamus (The Clock) with the Cerebral Cortex (The Sensory Motor System). The oscillations are produced by neurons that fire at a rate of about 40Hz. This frequency is called the Gamma Wave. This wave is associated with higher mental activity.

With every tick of the clock a sample is taken but it takes time to “calculate” the result. Images take more time to be “calcaluted: than sound and touch. This is the reason why the time-interval of a Gestalt (a combination of sound, image, …) is much longer than 1 sec.

If something happens that is faster than 1 second (a single note) it has an effect in more than one Gestalt. The very fast “happenings” outside are taken more than once in the calculation.

The existence of the specious moment has created many philosophical problems related to time and consciousness.

The first and most important point is the question of consciousness.

If time consists of independent moments (EVENTS) why do we experience continuity, a flow of time?

The sad answer is that continuity is an illusion. There are only “nows” and a feeling of the past time is a present feeling. The past is a correlation, a similarity of moments. The “feeling” of continuity could be created because the specious moments overlap. The clock ticks but the results of the “calculation” take longer than the time-interval of the clock.

Why is time moving to the future?

Again only a sad answer is available. We are not moving! The movement of time is a construction of our cerebral cortex.

So traveling time is really no problem. The only thing that will be a problem is to detect if we are time-traveling because we are doing it all the time!

The last and probably the most important question is what is there behind the veil of our senses.

I think the answer is : Immense Beauty or the Hyper-Diamond-Feynman-Checkerboard or the Holographic Universe or framed into Group Theory: The Monster.

LINKS

Everything you want to know about thalamocortical oscillations

About Circadian Rythms

The Wordwide Carnival: A Short Introduction into the World of Mikhail Bakhtin

Sunday, September 2nd, 2007

The work of Bakhtin was disclosed to me by Will McWhinney. He used Bahktin in one of the many versions of his never published book Grammars of Engagement.

The discovery of Bahktin started with a book about Bahktin by Saul Morson & Caryl Emerson. Later I also read many other books and articles like “The dialogical imagination”, “Towards a philosophy of the act”, “Discourse in the Novel”, “Rabelais and His World”, “Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics” and “Speech Genres and Other Late Essays”.

Bahktin invented the term Chronotope, “The place where the knots of narrative are tied” or “the intrinsic connectedness of temporal and spatial relationships that are artistically expressed in literature“.

A Chronotope is a Topological Concept

knotSpace (Place) and Time (the narrative) are connected by a Knot. A knot is a complicated twist in a rope. The twist is needed when you want to close a system in itself. The simplest topological structure that visualizes twisted space/time is the Moebius Ring.

The Chronotope is the Centre out of which every narrative that we are able to tell is enfolding and unfolding. It produces narratives and absorbs narratives. Bahktin places Folk-Lore, Myth, the Language of the People, in the Centre.

Every narrative contains a twist, a moment where the expansion of the beginning turns to the contraction of the end. It is the moment where the narrative is balanced. The reader holds his breath. It is also the moment where the narrative is aware of itself. It observes the whole.

Sometimes the twist is in the end. You know “who done it”. Sometimes the narrative starts with the twist. There are even narratives without a twist. You know all the time what will happen.

Scientists don’t realize that a scientific article is also a narrative. They use citation to prove they are telling a true story. Funny enough scientific citation has created the Internet. A hypertext is nothing but a citation-structure.

Old narratives produce new narratives. This is always accomplished by Citation. “The word in language is half someone else’s. It becomes “one’s own” only when the speaker populates it with his own intention, his own accent, when he appropriates the word, adapting it to his own semantic and expressive intention. Prior to this moment of appropriation, the word does not exist in a neutral and impersonal language. . . but rather it exists in other people’s mouths, in other people’s contexts, serving other people’s intentions: it is from there that one must take the word, and make it one’s own“”. The cursive sentence between brackets is a citation of Bahktin.

New narratives also oppose old narratives. They are Dialogic. “The entire life of language, in any area of its use . . . is permeated with dialogic relationships“.

Dialogues are converging (Socratic dialogue), diverging and conflicting (Menippian Dialogue) or one sided (the Magisterial Monologue). “Thus at any given moment of its historical existence, language is heteroglot from top to bottom: it represents the co-existence of socio-ideological contradictions between the present and the past, between differing epochs of the past, between different socio-ideological groups in the present, between tendencies, schools, circles and so forth

The Centre generates new narratives all the time. They are a mix of the old and the new. The centre is the Centrifugal Force and this force is powered by Contradiction.

Roller_CoasterThe Institutions, the Ruling Power, are constantly trying to standardize (the Centripetal force). They formulate rules and try to transform the dialogue into a monologue.

The centripetal and the centrifugal force create a huge tension. This tension moves the Wheel of Creation. The wheel always moves through the stages of Order and Chaos. In the middle of the Tornado of Creation is the Centre, the Chronotope. In the centre you will always find rest and inspiration.

The monologue (the magisterial dialogue) is the dialogue of the Magister, the scientist, the manager, the judge, the physician and the teacher. They use science, the law, books or other Magisters to enforce their power. By formulating rules they try to destroy the creative centre (the context).

A context is potentially unfinalized; a code must be finalized. A code is only a technical means of transmitting information; it does not have cognitive, creative significance. Code is deliberately killed context“.

At this moment the Centripetal force is implemented in the Search Engine. Narratives are found by typing codes. This makes it very difficult to find a context. Companies like Google are manipulating the coding. They are paid by the Centripetal Force of the Commercial Companies.

The centrifugal force is never at rest. It always generates new alternatives. The creation of new literature is not bounded by rules. Every time a new structure is defined the Centre starts to play with the rules and generates a new combination. The Centre is not only combining rules it even invents new rules. The Centre is the inventor of new Games to Play.

Producing literature is a process of spiralling out. It follows a cycle but at a certain point in time a new Centre appears and the Cycle starts a new process of Folk-lore. The new centre is always connected to the old Centre. New myths and new fairy tales are created that are a representation of the Spirit of the Time.

Every cycle is governed by a Clock. The periodicity of the Clocks is determinated by the number five. It runs at a frequency of 1250, 250, 50, 10 or 2 years. There are frequencies that are moving faster (the Atom) and much slower (the Universe).

I will tell the Tale of Bahktin on the level of the Cycle of Culture (1250 years, 250 years per stage).

HunsBetween 450 and 700 the Roman Empire is destroyed by the Huns. It is the time of the Great Deportations. People out of Asia move to the West. They are the ancestors of the Ostrogotes, the Visigotes, the Franks, the Gauls, the Germans and the Celts. 1250 years later they are integrated in what we now call Europe. Between 700 and 2000 the Europeans explore and conquer the World.

Around 1200 the new powers have created many Kingdoms and have organized the Crusades to conquer the Holy Land. To show their power they build the Cathedrals. The Cathedrals are the instrument of the Education of the Masses. The old folk-lore is transformed to the new of the Christian Faith. The old-folklore is not destroyed. Many symbols and important events are preserved. They are cited. The transition of the Sun in Winter is transformed in Christmas. The new apostles are connected to the old animals of the old Wheel of Fortune.

Tristan IsoldeBetween 1200 and 1450 the Chronotope of the Greek Romance (Tristan and Isolde, Arthur and The Grail) appears. It is the Chronotope of Being and Destiny. “There are a lot of suddenly’s”. Everything happens. The actor in this Chronotope is without identity. He is tested by destiny. When he has passed the test he is not changed. There is no time and space. Time (“adventure-time”) is reversible. The actors are public figures and space is public space. In the narratives we are able to see and hear everything.

We are in the Middle Ages. In the outside world destiny is also playing its evil game. Western Civilization is almost destroyed by the plague, feminine and wars between the Kingdoms. Even the Christian Empire of Rome is divided by a schism (Byzantium). At the end only a few Kingdoms survive. These Kings become Emperors. They represent God on Earth.

copernicusThis (1450-1700) is the time of the Chronotope of the Adventure. It is the Chronotope of Becoming. The identity of the actor is transforming. He is responsible for his own actions. Life is full of turning points (twists). The actor wants to take control of the outside world. Space becomes “private space”.

To give the reader insight in what is happening the Observer is introduced. He is a voyeur, a prostitute, a rambler, a rover, a tramp, a spy, a servant or an animal. The observer is not influencing the story at all. He is just watching. Objectivity is also introduced in space (court).

In the outside world we are in the Time of Renaissance (the Era of Discovery). It is the time of new inventions in Science (Copernicus), Art (Leonard Da Vinci) and Religion (Reformation, Luther, Calvin). The Bible is translated in the language of the people. It is also the time of the Great Explorations (Columbus) of the world outside the West. Western Culture starts his quest to control Nature and eventually the World.

munchThe next Chronotope is the Biography (1700-1950), the praise of a public figure who has accomplished something in life. We are moving from the outside world to the inside world of the actor.

Inner space is closed. “This offers a new relationship to one’s own self, one’s own particular “I”- with no witnesses, without any concessions to the voice of a “third person“.

Outside events affect the inner world. The actor is not showing this. In the outside world the actor is judged by his actions and not by his inner space (his essence). “The essence of man is realized not by his condition but by his activity“.

To give the reader a view on the inner space the outsider is introduced. His outside actions are governed by a distorted inner space. The outsider (the fool, the eccentric) acts as a reference.

The actor is a pretender. He is constantly in doubt, grumbling, cynical and sarcastic. He is also passive. He is watching from a distance. Everything is Relative (Bahktin was a fan of Einstein). The only time when the actor is able to show himself is at the carnival. During this short period he is allowed to choose his own mask.

This the time of the Industrial Revolution. It is the era of mechanization. It starts with the invention of the Mill and the Factory. It ends with the mechanized Consumer watching Television.

star warsStarting in 1950 we are again in the phase of Folk-lore. Western Civilization is moving to a new Centre, Earth.

New myths and legends will be created. They have to be based on all the tales, myths and legends that are available on Earth. Some of them will be a citation. Others will be an opposition.

All kinds of dialogues will take and have to take place. We will experience many conflicts (Mennipian Dialogue). We will also have to listen and ask questions to understand the other cultures (Socratic Dialogue). We have to stop our Western Magisterial Monologue.

In the beginning it will be a Heteroglossia (a many voicedness), a very complicated Knot we have to untie. When we have found the tread we will be able to weave a new web of narratives that will start the phase of the Greek Romance again.

Between now and 2100 “We must make the new by our own effort”.“We have to face problems of reality and human potential, problems of freedom and necessity, and the problem of creative initiative“. We have to become persons “who emerge along with the world and reflect the historical emergence of the world itself”.

In order to understand, it is immensely important for the person who understands to be located outside the object of his or her creative understanding — in time, in space, in culture. . . . Our real exterior can be seen and understood only by other people, because they are located outside us in space and because they are others

We have to write our own Novel. “There is no causality in novels, no genesis, no explanations based on the past, on the influences of the environment or of upbringing and so forth. Every act a character commits is in the present, and in this sense is not predetermined”.

We have to act without hesitation and leave history behind. There is no experience we can reuse. The future is unfinalized (open).

The Magisters are not able to tell us what to do. They are out of tricks. We have to put off our own masks and take responsibility for what we are doing. “There is no alibi for being”. We have to stop pretending and use citations of others to prove we are right.

carnival of fools

We are now part of the Worldwide Carnival of Fools. Choose your mask out of the many masks that are available all over the world. Listen to the stories of other cultures and be surprised about the beauty and the experience they are containing. Give the Fools and the Eccentrics, the Outsiders, a chance to help you.

Laugh.

It will be fun.

I want to close with a citation of Paul Feyerabend (Killing Time (1995)): “People, intellectuals especially, seem unable to be content with a little more freedom, a little more happiness, a little more light. Perceiving a small advantage, they seize it, circumscribe it, nail it down, and in this way prepare a New Age of ignorance, darkness and slavery. It is rather surprising that there are still people who want to help others for personal reasons, because they are kindhearted and because they have not been intimidated by principles. It is even more surprising that some of the people can work in institutions despite the greed, the incompetence, the power struggles that seem to surround the noblest cause.”

Do you want to know more about Feyerabend read The Act of Creation: About Fusion and Con-fusion

LINKS

About the Cathedrals

About the Fool in African Myths

About Fools, Pyramids and Bubbles

Why Fools always Lose

About Very Long Cycles

About the Cycle of Culture