Posts Tagged ‘Combinations’

About Mystical Number Theory and Pascal’s Triangle

Friday, December 2nd, 2011

The first part of this Blog is about the Triangular numbers, related to the Number 3, the Holy Trinity.

The second part shows that Pascal’s Triangle (called Meru’s Mountain in Mystics), the Binomial Expansion,  contains every Possible Mystical Number Pattern (including the Triangular Numbers) you can Imagine.

Pascal Triangle also shows that our Universe is a combinatorial miracle. It explores every possibility, is always in balance, expands and moves back to the beginning which is and was the Void, the Empty Set, the merge of Every Paradox, that is Possible.

About Mystical Number-Patterns

The Sēpher Yəṣîrâh (Book of Formation or Book of Creation, ספר יצירה) is the oldest book on Jewish Mysticism. The Sefer Yetzirah describes how the universe was created by the “God of Israel” through 32 Wondrous Ways of Wisdom.

The Number 32 is the Sum of the 10 Sephirot and the 22 Letters of the Hebrew Alphabet.

The Sephirot is related to the  Tetraktys of Pythagoras. The Tetraktys embodies the Four main Greek Cyclical (PlatonicMusical Harmonies: the Fourth (4:3), the Ffth (3:2), the Octave (2:1) and the Double Octave (1:4).

1+2+3+4 = 10. 10 is the 4th Triangular Number. The Nth triangular number is the Sum of the numbers 1 -> N. This Sum is equal to 1/2N(N+1).

Between the 10 Sephirot run 22 Channels or Paths which connect them.

The Sephirot are the Points of the Tetraktys. The Hebrew Letters are the Lines between the Points. The Lines of the  Sephirot and the Tetraktys create a Cube (6) at the Top and a Tetrahedron (4) at the Bottom.

The Letters of the Hebrew  Alphabet are divided in the 3 Mother Letters (אמש, the Trinity), the Seven Doubles (The Planets) and the Twelve Simples (the Zodiac).

The 22 letters of the Hebrew Alphabet are a combination of the Trinity, the 7 Planets and 12 Signs of the Zodiac.

When you analyse the Sepher Yeshirah the Cube of Space (the Kaaba) appears out of the Hebrew Alphabet. The Kaaba is related to the Seventh Planet, Saturn.

The 3 Axis of the Cube of Space are the Trinity, the 6 (2×3) Faces of the Cube stand for the Planets with the 7th Saturn, the Son of the Central Sun (3+1 (Center)+3) in the Center and the 12 (4×3) Boundary Lines of the Cube represent the 12 Signs of the Zodiac.

As you can see the Number Three, the Triangle,  plays an important role. It is the First Structure that is Closed in Itself and is therefore Topological related to the Circle. The Circle (and the Triangle) is able to rotate With and Against the Clock. This property is called Spin in Physics.

It is very important to realize that Everything Rotates in our Universe around a Central Object that rotates around another Central Object. The Central Object Gives Time, determinates the Rythm or Harmonics,  of the Rotation Structure.

The Trinity rotates around the Void. The 7 Chakra’s of the Human rotate around the 4th Chakra, the Heart Chakra, ((3+(1)+3)=7).

The Planets rotate around the Sun and the Sun rotates around the Central Black Hole. The arrow of Sagitarius points to this Black Hole.

On a Six Sided Dice the Sum of all the Numbers is Seven (1+6,2+5,3+4). The Sum of the Six Numbers is 3 X 7 = 21. If we add the Center (Saturn) the Number 22 appears.

22/7 is a good approximation of the number π. π relates the Square (and the Cube) to the Circle.

The Cube of Space symbolizes  the Playing Board of the Game of Life. On the Playing Board we have a Free Choice to move into the many Paths that are available. Every Path has its own Probability and this Probability can be calculated. If we don’t know what to do we could throw a Dice.

The Cube of Space contains the same six lines that exist in the I Ching. Four of the lines are of equal length, the other two, the diagonals, are longer. For this reason symmetry cannot be statically produced and the Dance (of Shiva) results.

The Circle represents the Cycles of Time of the Matrix of the Demiurg. Behind all the Probabilities of all the Possible Paths lies a Hidden Order.

A Hexagram, represented by the Star of David,  is a Two-Dimensional (Orthographic) projection of a Cube. A Symmetric Projection of the Cube creates a Cross.

A Hexagram is a Two Dimensional Cube

One of the many meanings of the first word in the Bible “Bereshit“,  is “They (Elohim) created Six” which means that in Six Stages of  the Time Cycle the Cube of Space (or the Hexagram) was populated. On the Seventh Day the Center was filled.

The book of Genesis does not describe the creation of the Trinity (They, Elohim, 1+2+3, 1x2x3) itself. This stage was later covered in the Zohar.

In my blog “About the Sum of Things” it is shown that Six Stages are part of an Expansion Pattern governed by the Powers of Two. After 2**6 (64) Expansions (or Compressions) the Same Fractal Pattern repeats itself on a higher level.

64 is the Number of the I Tjing and the Game of Chess. The number 32 of the Sepher Yeshirah is 64/2 and is a Contraction of the I Tjing.

The I Tjing is a contraction of the oldest Divination System in the Word called FA. FA is still used all over the world by the followers of the oldest wisdom-system created by the YOrubA in Africa. The Yoruba lived at the place where the ancient Paradise was situated.

Star of David in The Israeli Art Genesis-2

The Fourth Day (Sun (4), Moon (5))

About the Triangular Numbers

The Tetraktys contains the Numbers 1, 3, 6 and 10. These numbers are called Triangular Numbers.

The number 21 is also a Triangular Number because it is the Sum of  the Sixth Level of the Tetraktys,  the Numbers 1 to 6.

The Fifth Level of the Tetractys is related to the Number 15 (1+2+3+4+5). This number connects the Tetractys and the Sephirot to the 3×3 Lo Shu Magic Square also called the Seal of Saturn.

The nth Triangle number T(n) is the number of dots in a triangle with n dots on a side; it is the sum of the n natural numbers from 1 to n.  T(n)=n(n+1)/2.

The Triangular Numbers contain the Perfect Numbers. A perfect number is a positive integer that is equal to the sum of its proper positive divisors, that is, the sum of its positive divisors excluding the number itself. Six (1+2+3=1x2x3) is the first Perfect Number and 28 (1+2+4+7+14) is the next.

The Sum of two Triangular Numbers is a Square

The Sum of two adjacent Triangular Numbers T(n) +  T(n+1) is a Square Number because Two Triangels can be combined in a Square. 1+3=2**2 and 3+6=3**2.

There are many relationships between the Triangular Numbers. These relationships were the focus of the research of the Mystical Group of the Mathematikoi of Pythagoras.

6 (Bereshit, the Cube, the Hexagram) + the 22 Letters of the Hebrew Alphabet = 28, the Next Perfect Number (1+2+3+4+5+6+7).

28 is like the numbers 6 and 15 also a Hexagonal Number. As you can see in the picture below 28 is the fourth Hexagonal Number. As we have seen before a Hexagon is a Projection of a Cube so 28 represents a Cube in a Cube in a Cube. A Cube in a Cube is called a Tessarect or a HyperCube.

28 is a Hexagonal Number

The Number 15 is a Cube in a Cube called a Tessarect or a HyperCube

The first sentence in Genesis (“In the beginning Elohim created Heaven and Eearth“) contains 7 words and 28 letters. This indicates that the Creation Process was already in the 7th stage of the Tetraktys and in its 2nd Fractal Expansion,  the Birth of the Material Universe.

The sum of the entire verse is the 73rd Triangular Number. The prime Numbers 37 and 73 are geometrically related. They form the third and the fourth term in the sequence of Star Numbers (1, 13, 37, 73, 121).

Hexagon/Star pairs are closely related to Triangular numbers. Their product is always a Triangle, and they can be symmetrically generated from a Pair of Triangles.

Star Numbers are a Combination of Two Triangular Numbers

The Square is a combination of two Triangels. It is represented by the Of Star of David, the Symbol of the Heart Chakra.

The Symbol of the Heart Chakra contains Two Triangles.

About Pascal’s Triangle

When a number represents a Geometric Structure it is called a Figurative Number.

Every possible figurative number is generated by the Triangle of Pascal.

The Fractal Sierpinsky Triangle is the Triangle of Pascal Modulo 2.

The Triangle of Pascal was known long before Pascal (re)discovered it.

It was known in Ancient India as the Meru Prastara and in China as  the Yang Hui.  Meru Prastara relates the triangel to a Mystical Mountain called Mount Meru. Mount Meru is also implemented in the Sri Yantra.

The Triangle shows the Coefficients of the Function F(X,Y))= (X+Y)**n. If n=0 F(X,Y)=1 and if n=1 F(X,Y)=X+Y so the Coeffcients are (1,1).

Pascals Triangle is a 2-Dimensional System based on the Polynomal (X+Y)**N. It is always possible to generalize this structure to Higher Dimensional Levels. 3 Variables ((X+Y+X)**N) generate The Pascal Pyramid and n variables (X+Y+Z+….)**N  generate The Pascal Simplex.

The rows of the Pascal’s Triangle add up to the power of 2 of the row. So the sum of row 0 is 2**0 and  the sum of row 1 is 2**1 =2.

The Sum of the  rows of the higher n-dimensional versions of the Triangle is n**N where n is the Amount of Variables and N the level of expansion. So the Sum of Pascal’s Pyramid (3 variables X,Y,Z) is 3**N.

Triangle of Pascal

The most interesting property of the Triangle is visible in the Diagonals.

The First Diagonal contains only 1′s. The Ones represent Unique Objects. They are the Points in the Tetraktys.

The Second Diagonal contains the natural numbers. These Numbers are used to Count Objects that are The Same. The Natural Numbers are the Lines that connect the Points. The Natural Numbers are the Sum of the previous Ones.

The Third Diagonal contains the triangular numbers. The Triangular Numbers are the Sum of the previous Natural Numbers.

This pattern repeats itself all the time.

File:Yanghui triangle.gif

The Yang Hui is an ancient Chinese version of the Triangle of Pascal. This Triangle contains Nine (3x3) Levels.

The Fourth Diagonal contains the tetrahedral numbers (Pyramid Numbers) and the Fifth Diagonal, the pentatope numbers.

Fermat stated that Every Positive Integer is a Sum of at most three Triangular numbers, four Square numbers, five Pentagonal numbers, and n n-polygonal numbers.

The Tetrahedron with basic length 4 (summing up to 20) can be looked at as the 3-Dimensional analogue of the Tetraktys.

File:Pyramid of 35 spheres animation.gif

A Tetrahedral Number represents a 3D-version of the Tetraktys.

The Diagonals of the Triangle of Pascal contain every Possible 2-Dimensional Figurative Number (and Structure).

These Numbers are Projections of Higher Dimensional Numbers and Higher Dimensional Structures.

The Higher Dimensional Versions of the Triangle (the Pascal Pyramid, The Pascal Simplex) contain these structures.

The Rows of the Triangle Sum to the Powers of Two (2 Dimensions). These Powers control the Levels of Expansion.

Every 7th step the Fractal Pattern of the Triangle repeats itself on a higher Level.

The Figurative Numbers are the Geometric Shapes that are created by the Lines of the Natural Numbers that are connecting the Points of the One.

Pascal’s Triangle also contains the numbers of the Fibonacci Sequence (“The Golden Spiral“).

When we take the Modulo 9 (the Digital Root of Pythagoras) of the Numbers of Fibonacci a repeating patterns of 24 steps shows itself that can be represented by a Star Tetrahedron or Stella Octangula. The Star Tetrahedron is a Three Dimensional Star of David.

the Fibonacci Numbers as a Cube.

The StarTetrahedron, shows the Pattern behind the Sequence of Fibonacci.

Every Figurative Number N is the Sum of the Figurative Numbers N-1.  Every Geometric Shape is a combination of all the Previous Geometric Shapes.

This means that Every Geometric Shape is in the end The Sum of the Sum of the Sum of  …. Triangels, Trinities (Elohim) or Triangular Numbers and therefore an Extension of the Tetractys of Pythagoras.

The Expansion of the Whole is a (Fractal)  Combination of Combinations.

The Triangle of Pascal is related to the so called Binomial Theorem which is used in Combinatorics and Probability Theory to describe the Amount of Combinations of a Set of  Objects.

The rows of the Triangle of Pascal also shows the Bell Shaped Pattern of the Normal Distribution.

The Probability Distribution of the Triangle of Pascal converges to the Normal Distribution because of the Central Limit Theorem. Every Row has a Mean of N/2 and a Variance of (N**1/2)/2 which means that with every new row the Mean and the Variance become Bigger and Bigger.

The Triangle of Pascal and therefore the Figurative Numbers describe Everything that is Possible but every Expansion of the Triangle is less Likely to Occur.

The Triangle of Pascal Modulo 3

The Triangle of Pascal Mod 3 represents the Tetraktys in the Tetraktys in the .....

Because of the Fractal Expansion/Contraction Pattern The Cube of  Space, related to the Element Earth,  explains Everything there is to Know on Our Level of Existence, Mother Earth.

The interesting part of the Figurative Numbers is that they representent Visual Patterns with which we can Reason.

We don’t need complex formulas because we can See what is Possible.

The interesting part of the Triangle of Pascal is that we can See that the Complex Figurative Structures are created out of a very Simple Structure, the Triangle.

If we want to understand our Reality we have to begin with looking at the Beginning and not start somewhere in the Middle.

If we look at the Fractal Expansion Pattern of the Triangle we See that Every new Stage is an Expansion Out of the Middle.

The Expansion of the Human, the Next Step in our Evolution,  is therefore an Expansion Out of the Heart, the Balance of Father Sky and Mother Earth.

Life is not only about Me and the Other.

Life is also about the Relationship between Me and the Other.

If we don’t Collaborate the Next stage in our Evolution will never happen.


The Content of the Sepher Yesirah

About the Sepher Yesirah

About the Cube of Space

About the Tetractys

About the Cube of Space and Psychology

About the Sepher Yesirah and the I Tjing

A correspondence table of the Cube of Space

About Bereshit

About Genesis

About Patterns in the Bible

About Saturn

About the Trinity

About the Sri Yantra and Plato

About the Lo Shu and the I Tjing

All kind of strange relationships between Triangular Numbers

A website about Mystical Number Theory

About the Figurative Numbers

About Combining the Combinations

About the Golden Spiral and Plato

About the Logic of Creation

About Pascal’s Triangle and the Normal Distribution

A complete course in elementary Number Theory

About the Psychology of the Cube of Space

About the Tetraktys and the Zodiac

About the Process Theory of Paul Young

About the Theory of Dewey B. Larsson

Mysteries of the Equilateral Triangle

About Visual Patterns in Number Theory

About Pascal’s Triangle and Cell Division

About Combining the Combinations

Monday, May 30th, 2011



Evolution means the creation of larger and larger islands of order at the expense of even greater seas of disorder in the world. In the process of evolution, each succeeding species is more complex and thus better equipped as a transformer of available energy.: Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy: A New World View (1980).

You wouldn’t enjoy a perfectly ordered universe. A wholly ordered universe would be at perfect equilibrium and would be dead. There can arise no Order unless there is a Flow of Matter and Energy which decreases in intensity as a system moves toward equilibrium. Motion, change or evolution in the Universe is driven by fluxes of energy and energy-rich matter flowing from sources of high potential to sinks of lower potential.

During the road from Being to Becoming Cyclic Auto-Catalytic Systems are created that Re-Create themselves until they Die. Islands of Order Appear and Disappear in the Sea of Chaos.

About Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the Science of the Transfer of Energy.

In strict Scientific terms Energy is classified into two main forms: Kinetic and Potential energy. Kinetic Energy is defined as the energy of a moving object. Potential Energy is defined as the energy in matter due to its position or the arrangement of its parts. The various forms of Potential Energy include gravitational potential energy, elastic potential energy, chemical potential energy, and electrical potential energy.

The First Law of Thermodynamics says that the total quantity of Energy in the universe remains Constant.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the quality of this energy is degraded irreversibly. The Second Law predicts that our Universe will end when the Explosive Motion of the Big Bang wil stop and we will reach the Absolute Zero.

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1790-1832) detected the Second Law of Thermodynamics when he tried to find the most efficient heating engine.

According to Carnot the Efficiency of an Engine is (T1T2)⁄T1, where T1 is the highest temparature. The Higher the Difference between the two Temperatures of the Engine the Lower the Efficiency. The Bigger the Step the Higher the Waste. If you want to build a highly efficient Engine, the Engine has to make very Small Steps when the Engine is heated.  This principle is known as Adiabatic Expansion (and Compression).

Physical, Chemical, and Electrical energy can be completely changed into Heat. But the Reverse (heat into physical energy, for example) cannot be accomplished without a loss. The irreversible increase of this nondisposable, useless, energy in the universe is measured by the abstract dimension  called Entropy (from the Greek entrope, change).

The Entropy measures the degree to which the probability of the system is spread out over different possible states. If all the possible States of the System are the Same, the System is in Equilibrium and the Entropy, the State of Order,  is on its Maximum.

In the Beginning of the Universe Every Thing was Different. In the End State Every Part of the Universe will be the Same.

About the History of Innovation

The central actor in the 19th century model of cultural innovation is the Artist, conceived, as an individual creator of works of art. Art is produced only by a handful of exceptional individuals.

The process of technical innovation in the 19th century was seen in terms similar. The central focus was on the work of individual inventors and researchers, commonly with little or no specifically scientific training.

By the early 20th century, this model was displaced by an industrialized process of innovation.

The first major step in this process was the rise of the Research University and the development of a large class of technically trained workers. In the 20th century, pure scientific research had become the preserve of universities and specialist research institutes.

The second major step was the development of corporate forms of business organization, which allowed Research and Development to become an organized business activity, operated on industrial lines.

The pattern of innovation in the 21st century is radically different. In most sectors of the economy, the rate of technological progress has slowed down substantially. Technological progress is characterised largely by Incremental Improvements to mature products.

In Computing and Telecommunications, the rate of progress has accelerated dramatically since the late 1980. The convergence of Computing and Telecommunications in the Internet has fundamentally transformed every activity it has touched. Everything that can be formalized will be formalized.

The Internet makes it possible that disjunct Networks of Isolated Innovators connect and share their Knowledge and Experience.

The Artist,  now connected with many other “exceptional individuals” all over the world,  is on its return.

About Incremental and Disruptive Industrial Innovation

There are two types of Industrial Innovation called “incremental”  and disruptive” innovation.

Japan (and now China) has made incremental improvement the cornerstone of  Technical Advancement. After months and years of gradual (adiabatic) changes, products look radically different, as happened with semiconductors, solar cells and batteries.

The US claims that it is the Champion of Disruptive Innovation.  Their “Internet”-entrepeneurs like Amazon, Google and Facebook believe in a “Statistical” model of Innovation, A Portfolio or an Innovation Ecology.

One of the many “Trials and Errors” will result in a big breakthrough that will Disrupt the Market. Behind Disruptive Innovation lies the Concept of Evolution, Survival of the Fittest, the Essence of Capitalism.

Disruptive Innovation uses Incremental Innovation to improve the Parts of the Portfolio.

Incremental Innovation (“Proces/Product/Business Model Improvement”) takes place  when an Innovation is improved until the Limits are reached.

Incremental Innovation could use the Efficient Small Steps of the Adiabatic Process to reach the Goal of the highly Effective.

Most of the time Proces/Product Improvement (“Standardization”) is not a Structured Process because People believe Innovation is about “Thinking Out of the Box”. If People “Think out of the Box” the proces will move into a Chaotic State and will Die.

Creative Incremental Innovation will produce a Lot of Waste (“Heat”, “Fuzz”) and accomplish Nothing. Managed Incremental Innovation has to remove the Waste and the Constraints.

With every step that is taken the System has to become more probable so the results of the proces will be more predictable. When the Limits are reached, we have to Restucture the System to move on.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics shows that Closed Systems finally Converge to a State of Equillibrium with a High Probability, a High Entropy.

Systems that are Isolated by a Boundary behave as Closed Systems. Systems that are Open to other Systems Merge and become Closed.

Most of the Time people don’t understand the Boundary of their System and Act in a Shared Boundary. In this Shared Boundary Competition takes place. Competition is a waste of Energy. If People could define their Boundaries they could Cooperate.

People Communicate. They  Share their Ideas, Problems and Solutions.  When a Process is well understood the Improvements of the Process are disseminated through the Human Networks and widely Copied.

Human Networks are Closed Systems that are connected to other Networks by Boundary Spanners.

Most people don’t understand that there are other people in other Networks who are doing the Same thing they are doing. They think their activity is Unique and don’t understand that the State of Uniqueness was only there at the Beginning.

Secrecy slows down communication between the People in the Network. The result of Secrecy is that People are unable to learn from others so they are unable to reuse the solutions of others. Secrecy is again a Waste of Time.

In the end the Competitive Advantage of the Innovation is completely gone and the Entropy of the System is at its Maximum.

At that moment every Process in every Part of the System will be the Same and the Companies will Merge or will be taken over by other Companies. Winner Takes All.

The Temperature of the Industry will move to Zero and every Movement (and Innovation) will stop.

About Creativity

There are two Views on Creativity. Creativity is a Combinatorical Game and Creativity is a Spontaneous Eruption of Ideas forced by High Pressure.

At such a moment, “the Aha-Erlebnis“, two or more Frames of Reference Fuse and a new Innovative Combination is created.

The last view has a lot to do with the theory of “Self-Organized Criticallity“.

The Metaphor of this Theory is the Disaster, the Avalanche or the Sand Pile that Suddenly moves when the critical grain of sand falls. At that moment a Significant Part of the Collection of individual grains Combines and moves on its own.

When a System is reaching the Boundaries of Proces Improvement and a Huge Pressure to Innovate is experienced,  two or more Systems (“Frames of Reference”) Fuse (Combine).

When the Systems are in Equilibrium the Fusion is easy (“Connecting”) otherwise the Fusion could become a Disaster, a Disruption, a Creative Destruction and a Huge Amount of Heat (Waste) is produced.

About Managed Creativity

If Innovation  is a Combinatorial Game we have to restructure a System into a “loosely-coupled”  System of Components and combine the Components with the “well-articulated” Components of other Systems.

A Loosely Coupled System is a System where each of its components has, or makes use of, little or no knowledge of the definitions of other separate components. The components act as Black-Boxes“.

A Component is “well-articulated” if it contains Just Enough Functionality to do the job. An Under-Articulated system is Rigid. It contains Not Enough functionality to Adapt to the Changing environment. When Systems grow old they become Over-Articulated because the Designers want to add new functionality without looking at the Boundaries of the System. Over-Articulated Systems overlap and it becomes very difficult to find the Essence. Designers always want to Solve every problem with their Own System.

Genrich S. Altshuller was a Russian Patent Officer who tried to find a Pattern behind Patents.

Altshuller screened over 200,000 patents looking for Inventive problems and how they were solved. Of these only 40,000 (20%) had somewhat Inventive solutions; the rest were straight forward improvements.

Altshuller defined an Inventive problem as one in which the solution causes another problem, a Contra-Diction or Conflict,  to appear. He found that the same problems had been solved over and over again using one of only Forty fundamental inventive principles. Altshuller  named his method  TRIZ.

Humans are prone to reivent the Wheel many times because they only look for Solutions in their own Frame of Reference. The Solution of their Problem is almost all the time already available in another Domain.

Roni Horowitz has analyzed the Principles of Althuller and found a deeper structure behind TRIZ which he called ASIT.

ASIT is about Thinking Inside the Box instead of Outside the Box. The so called Closed World condition, forces the thinker to find a creative solution by heavily limiting his or hers Space of Possibilities.

The Qualitative Change Principle looks for solutions in which the influence of the main problem factor is either totally eliminated or even reversed. The System has to become Perfect. Every Component has to fullfill just one Task  (“Well Articulated”) and the Functions of the System have to create a “Closed World” which means that the System has to be Closed in Itself.

About Combining the Combinations

The Second Law of Thermodynamics shows that it is Almost Impossible to move back to an old solution when the Solution is widely used.

Nature Solves its Problems by Experimenting but the Experiments are not completely at Random. Nature uses an Established Infrastructure and Plays with all the Possible Paths that Emerge out of the Existing Infrastructure, The Adjacent Possible.

Before life emerged on Earth, the planet was dominated by a handful of basic molecules. Each of these molecules was capable of a finite series of transformations and exchanges with other molecules in the primordial soup.

According to Stuart Kauffman Life  started when the Chemical Parts of early life  started to Re-Create themselves in a Cyclic Process  called AutoCatalysis. Re-Creation of the Same Structure is one of the most important principles of a Living System. Our body is recreated all the time in an endless Cycle until we Die.

If you could Play with all the Primordial Combinations, you would end up with the Components of Life but it is impossible to create a mosquito, or a sunflower, or a human brain.They were created when the Combinations started to Combine Again and Again.

Innovation in Nature is an endless Cyclic Expanding proces of Combining the Combinations.

This process moves on until the Limits of the Expanding Space of Possibilities are reached. These Limits are reached when there is not enough “useful” Energy available.

Combining the Combination happens in Nature but also in our Culture. Old infrastructures are used in a new way and a complete new field of Combinatorics appears.

Johannes Gutenberg took the older technology of the screw press, designed originally for making wine, and reconfigured it with metal type to invent the printing press which made it possible that new ideas, concepts and procedures were better dissiminated through the Human Networks.

Is there an End to Human Innovation?

The Universe is Expanding and is Creating New Combinations of Combinations all the Time.

The Law of Kleiber shows that the Combinations of the Combinations Fuse. The Law of Kleiber is just like Self-Organized Criticallity represented by a Power-Law. Power-Laws are independent of a Scale and therefore applicable on every Level of the Universe. They show that One Principle (“a Fractal“) Repeats itself on every Level.

Every time when the Combinations Fuse they are better equipped as a Transformer of Available Energy but the Creation of larger and larger islands of Order happens at the Expense of even greater seas of Disorder. Humanity is Wasting resources at an increasing rate, and that will lead to the destruction of our civilization.

The Combinations become Bigger and Bigger AND the Big Structures Attract Each Other. The larger group of possibilities will always be the Dominant Attractor.

This is the main reason for the success of Google, Facebook and Twitter. They have aquired the Power to Control their Market by Giving away their Products for Free so the Amount of Users would grow Exponentionally. They make money by letting other companies pay for the Use of their Huge Attractor.

The Small Auto-Katalytic Chemical Factories, the Bacteria,  that were created in the beginning are now fusing into Very Big Cities and the next Step will be One Mega-City covering a Huge Area of the Earth.  These Mega-Cities will be extremely Efficient and Effective. When this happens Nature will be replaced by a Human Made Technological Structure that has to use completely new ways to produce and use energy.

The next Step is easy to imagine. The Human Race will start to create new Mega-Cities on other Planets that will fuse into Mega-Planets.

The Big Problem will of course be Energy. We have to find new Sources all the time to support the Human Need to Expand and Discover. Every time when we create a new and Bigger Source of Energy the Amount of useless Heat will increase and the End of the Universe will get closer and closer.

Human Invention is Speeding Up the End because in the End Humans want to become One with the Whole.

According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics the Universe is moving to an Equilibrium State and not to an Extremely Impossible Innovative Configuration. At a Certain Point of Time Human Innovation has to Stop because we will reach the State of Absolute Zero Temperature and every Movement will Stop.

In the End the Universe will move into a State of Infinite Sleep.

What to Do?

The most important thing you can do when you want to Innovate is to create a Deep Understanding of just One Frame of Reference.

You have to become an Expert in Something and you have to have the attitude to create the Perfect Frame of Reference.

Every time when the System is not performing you have to solve the problem Inside the Box but you have to make use of Solutions that are Outside the Box.

Every Time when you are Satisfied,  remove a Constraint and Force Yourself to Solve the problem.

At a Certain Moment your Frame of Reference will Explode and will produce many Fragments. They are the Basic Building Blocks of Your Domain.

Start to Play with the Building Blocks and new Possibilities will appear that you have never Thought off.

You now have entered the Adjacent Possible.


About Creativity and High Pressure

About Self-Organized Criticallity

About Self-Organized Criticallity and Innovation

About Complexity Theory and Innovation

About Loosely Coupled Systems

About Boundaries

About Triz

Stuart Kaufmann about Radical Emergence

Advanced Systematic Inventive

About ASIT (Advanced Systematic Inventive Thinking)

How Nature Plays

About Constructal Law

About the Origin of Good Ideas

About the Adjecent Possible

About the Law of Kleiber

Why Cities are Organisms

About the Beginning of the Universe

About  the End of the Universe