Posts Tagged ‘World’

About Stress

Monday, May 3rd, 2010

Most of the time we Sense the world with our Expectation. A wall painted white is unlikely to be physically the same colour along its full length, especially if a bright light is shining on it, but we Think it as a white wall. We perceive the world with our knowledge from previous experience.

Our Believe System is the most Conservative System in our Body. We need the Constancy our Thinking System is creating to Survive in an Ever Changing World.  Our Believe System creates and sustains our Identity (or Personality).

Sometimes we need to Re-Act to a Life-Threatening Event. In this case the Reptile Brain takes over Control and We Act without Thinking.

The Reptile or Hind Brain is the “oldest” System in the Human Being. It was developed after the Organisms that originated in the Sea started to specialize and therefore got into a Competition.

To Survive the Competition the Organisms developed all kinds of Sensors (Eyes, Ears, Skin, Third Eye,..) and Effectors (Ways to Move, Flagellum, Muscle Fibers,  Gland Cells,..).   

brain_struc_ANS_PHB

When the Body is Alerted, the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) which starts in the Hypothalamus produces Adrenaline. Adrenaline accelerates the heart rate; widens the lungs and raises the blood pressure. The SNS prepares the body to Move Away (Flight) from the Emergency or to Attack the Emergency (Fight). The third way to Re-Act (Freeze) is to Hide and become Invisible.

When the State of Urgency is gone the Parasympathetic Nervous System (PSNS) produces Acetylcholine which brings the Body Back to its Normal State of Rest.

The SNS is triggered by Real Events and Imaginary Events. When we are getting Exited or Angry the Body is also prepared to Move Away from or to Attack the Emergency.  

When the Believe System Believes the Outside World is not to be Trusted,  the Body moves into a permanent State of Stress waiting for the final moment to Act.

Long Term Stress increases the output of Adrenaline that interferes with Lymphocyte Function, weakening the body”s immune defenses against infectious diseases.

Prolonged Stimuli over a certain threshold of Loudness, Brightness and Speed affect the nervous system, as do stimulants in food, drink and drugs. Further, an increase in Acidity at cellular level predisposes the body to sympathetic activity.

One way in which the body protects itself from emotional intensity is the development of Chronic Muscular Tension, which dampens down both external and internal stimuli. The Body protects itself by creating a Muscular Armor.

This Muscular Armor impairs health because it constricts and inhibits spontaneous processes in general (i.e. including feelings and thoughts), such as Breathing, the Blood Circulation and the Lymphatic Circulation, which are responsible for clearing the body of Toxins.

On the other hand, chronic parasympathetic activation, which correlates more with psychological collapse and depression, is not healthy either. Its characteristics are the opposite of chronic sympathic activation (low blood pressure, low heart rate,…).

To keep the Body Healthy the Human has to keep a delicate balance between “Real” Action and “Real” Rest. 

To get rid of all the Imaginary Actions the Believe System has to be Cleaned Daily (Enough Sleep, Meditation).

LINKS

Why Mobile Communication is Generating Stress

How to Get Rid of an Addiction to Stress

How the Human came Out of the Sea

How the Human Sensory Motor System was formed out of the Flagellum of the Bacteria

About the Reptile Brain

How to Make Everybody Happy

Monday, December 8th, 2008

Obama wants to stimulate the US Economy by investing a Huge amount of Dollars in Infrastructure. He is not worried about the US Deficit. Big Spending is needed to create jobs and creating jobs is priority number one. If he is not worried about the Deficit I would advice him to change his plan and just give everybody in the US enough money to buy what they want. This would really boost the Economy in a very short time.

The US Deficit is rising and because of many factors (mainly the Baby Boomers) the deficit will rise to almost 53.000.000.000 US Dollars.

It is possible for the US to go on spending without taking care of its budget?

If nobody wants the US to pay back his debt Everything is Possible. If the US Citizens start to consume every country in the World will benefit because every country in the World wants to sell its products to the US.

Why don’t we give a lot of money to the Underdeveloped Countries too? Many people are starving to death.

He could do that too. Obama is the President of the US and the US is the biggest power in the World. He is able to do everything he wants to do and everybody will like his plan. If your are the President of the US you have to ACT BIG.

Why don’t we give everybody in the Whole World what they really want?

He could do this too. In a few years Everybody in the Whole Wide World will be Happy. This is really the Big Thing.

But wait.

The US is still the biggest Military Power in the World. The US is spending about $1 trillion per year to finance its Defense Budget. Obama wants to spend about $700 billion to boost the economy. When everybody is happy you don’t need an army. This would save $300 billion to help the poor people in the Word. If everybody is happy all the other countries don’t need an army too. This would save even more money. Making everybody in the World Happy is a good plan.

But wait.

If the US is not paying for an Army many people in the US and other countries will be out of work. It will also kill the Weapon Industry. They have to find another job. Perhaps they could find a job in Healthcare.

But wait.

If everybody is happy the amount of sick people will decrease. This will have an impact on the Pharmaceutical Industry and many other Industries. They have to find another job. Perhaps they could find a job in the Media.

But wait.

If everybody is happy the Media will lose jobs because Bad News is always Good News. They have to find another job. Perhaps they could find a job in Agriculture or Education.

But wait.

If people are happy they produce less children and we need the Children to give the Teachers something to do. We will need less food and if you work in Agriculture you don’t need much Education. They have to find another job.

Sorry. I will stop.

I don’t think it is a good plan to spend money to make everybody happy in the World. If everybody is happy the problems get bigger and bigger. I now understand why people are consuming. They are consuming because they are not happy. The US needs Enemies to keep the US Citizens Consuming.

But wait.

If the Enemies of the US are not happy they will ask the US to balance its budget. So someday Obama has to do something.

What?

Increase the Budget of the Army.

Good plan!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O_TjBNjc9Bo ( A Video about the future US Deficit).

About the Grand Chessboard of Zbigniew Machiavelli

Monday, November 24th, 2008

I am afraid the big change of Obama will not change anything at all. It looks like the financial elite has placed a new pawn on the chessboard but the game and the players stay the same. The Geopolitical Players are defining a strategy to beat Russia and China.

Obama is surrounding himself with old fashioned politicians who are part of the old fashioned networks of the financial Elite. They are part of the famous World Conspiracy Groups like the Bilderberg Group, the Council of Foreign Relations and the Trilateral Commission.

Obama is announcing the old-fashioned New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt to save the US and will use the same money printing machine of the FED to finance his plan.

The big difference with the time of Roosevelt is that the US is completely broke and has to start to pay his debts. Obama is postponing this moment because he knows (and the Elite knows) that the US Citizens are not prepared to move back to a state of poverty.

To save and to create jobs Obama has to Protect the US Economy againts the outflow of jobs to the New Economies, China and India. The emerging state of economic protection will generate huge effects in the World. When the US starts to protect its market others will follow soon.

The big question is if every country in the world will support the new policy of the US. The United States is still befriended with the four oil-rich Gulf States.

The US has already asked them 300 billion dollars to prevent its financial meltdown. The US is still by far wasting the biggest amount biggest of energy in the world and the Arabs need the US to sell their oil.

The biggest adversaries of the US, China and Russia are united in what is called the Shanghai Cooperation. The cooperation is connected to India and Pakistan but also to countries like South Africa and Brazil (BRIC).

One of the important geo-political strategists of the US is Zbigniew Brzezinski. He was one of the advisors of Obama on foreign policy. Brzezinski was also National Security Adviser of President Carter, the creator of the Trilateral Commission and an Associate of Henry Kissinger.

A few citations: “…The last decade of the twentieth century has witnessed a tectonic shift in world affairs. For the first time ever, a non-Eurasian power has emerged not only as a key arbiter of Eurasian power relations but also as the world’s paramount power. The defeat and collapse of the Soviet Union was the final step in the rapid ascendance of a Western Hemisphere power, the United States, as the sole and, indeed, the first truly global power…”

About 75 per cent of the world’s people live in Eurasia, and most of the world’s physical wealth is there as well, both in its enterprises and underneath its soil. Eurasia accounts for 60 per cent of the world’s GNP and about three-fourths of the world’s known energy resources.”"The most immediate task is to make certain that no state or combination of states gains the capacity to expel the United States from Eurasia.”

The strategy and tactics of Brzezinski and his colleagues (Kissinger) have inspired every government of the US until now. It becomes very clear why there is a war in Afghanistan and why Irak had to be destroyed. The aim is to create one dominant power that is controlling the World called the United States.

The power of the Sovjet Union was destroyed by Financial Warfare and Political Instability (Kosovo) generated by the US and its allies (including the Netherlands!).

The Sovjet Union has recovered and has restored its old fashioned control structure. It is has started a new expansion strategy and slowly moving to the West. Putin knows that NATO is unable to resist his policy because the focus of NATO is in the East.

Putin also knows that the West (especiallyGermany) needs his huge resouces of oil and gaz. He knows that the Pipelines are the most strategic tools to manipulate the EG.

He also knows that Germany is deep within not an Adversary but a Companion. The only thing he has to do is break the EG. This will happen soon because of the big internal differences between the Rich and the Poor Countries.

China has become one of the most powerful nations in the World. An alliance between the two (and with Germany the tree) old fashioned adversaries of the US is a super treat for the dominance of the West.

It is very clear that the US is losing its strategic positions in every part of the world except the Middle East. In this area Iran is the most important adversary and it is very clear why the US together with its ally Israel is trying to play the same trick it used with Irak to start a new war.

What will happen?

The CIA will go on with its destabilization programs. They will create new enemys of the West to justify military activity (Afghanistan). Military activity always helps to stimulate the economy and keeps the focus of the citizens away from the real game.

Financial Warfare has proven to be a very effective tactic. The activities of the FED will be aimed at destabilizing China. Russia is already in trouble. The closure of the US Economy will stop the economic explosion of China. The only thing that is left for the BRIC-countries is to create an internal market and a common currency. Other countries in the world have to make a choice. Will they follow the leadership of the US or join the still growing economies of BRIC. In the End the Old fashioned Cold War between the US and the Communists (Russia/China/India,…) will start again.

The last and the most helpful activity to destroy the enemies and to speed up the economy will be an old fashioned (Third) World War. The battlefield of this war has to be far away from the US to avoid “nasty” consequences. Eastern Europe (Germany, Poland, …) is by far the best place to act. You have to do this without disturbing the relationship with EU. This is simple.

The big trouble is that Germany and Russia have already negociated a secret treaty. They have divided Europe into two territories that have a lot in common with the famous Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Hilter and Stalin. The only thing Germany has to do is to break the EG into two parts.  This will generate a high tension between the old adversaries Germany and France.  

The EU will be in big trouble because of the economic crisis and every country will act on its own as soon as the weak countries (Spain, Greece, Portugal, Eastern Europe) really get into trouble. They will protect their economies and this will destabilize the European Union. The only thing you have to do to is to tease the Russians. They just want to be respected as a Super Power. Isolate them and show them that they are a powerless nation and they will become terribly angry.

The geopolitical players and followers of Machiavelli (Kissinger, Brzezinski, Poetin) don’t care about human lifes. They don’t care about democracy. Their only aim is to stay in power and to increase their power.

Machiavelli became famous by his book the Prince. It is a political cookbook for politicians to stay in power. The most important lesson is deceit. The politician has to show all the positive qualities needed to be loved by the people. He has to be merciful, faithful, humane, frank, and religious, but he should only seem to have these qualities.

A politician cannot truly have these qualities because at times it is necessary to act against them. The only ethic that matters is one that is beneficial to the politician in dealing with the concerns of his state. If his country wants a redeemer he has to look like a redeemer but behind the scene everything is allowed. You have to admit Obama is a great Actor and the Role of the Redeemer fits him well.

To defeat your opponents you have to commit them to your cause. If you are blamed. They are blamed also. The best way to beat the Clintons is to make them your partner. Hillary understands and practiced Machiavelli.

Introducing change is the most stupid thing you can do. You have to make everybody believe that the old is new. Everybody believes the New Deal was succesful and Roosevelt was a succesful president. So why not copy his scenario and (re)play his role.

`We must bear in mind, then, that there is nothing more difficult and dangerous, or more doubtful of success, than an attempt to introduce a new order of things in any state. For the innovator has for enemies all those who derived advantages from the old order of things, whilst those who expect to be benefited by the new institutions will be but lukewarm defenders. This indifference arises in part from fear of their adversaries who were favoured by the existing laws, and partly from the incredulity of men who have no faith in anything new that is not the result of well-established experience. Hence it is that, whenever the opponents of the new order of things have the opportunity to attack it, they will do it with the zeal of partisans, whilst the others defend it but feebly, so that it is dangerous to rely upon the latter.”

When his Power is at stake the Prince has to start a war.

A PRINCE ought to have no other aim or thought, nor select anything else for his study, than war and its rules and discipline; for this is the sole art that belongs to him who rules, and it is of such force that it not only upholds those who are born princes, but it often enables men to rise from a private station to that rank. And, on the contrary, it is seen that when princes have thought more of ease than of arms they have lost their states. And the first cause of your losing it is to neglect this art; and what enables you to acquire a state is to be master of the art“.

The big problem are mercenaries. To fight a war you need warriors who are dedicated to You and Nobody Else. Always please the Military Elite.

He who holds his State by means of mercenary troops can never be solidly or securely seated. For such troops are disunited, ambitious, insubordinate, treacherous, insolent among friends, cowardly before foes, and without fear of God or faith with man. Whenever they are attacked defeat follows; so that in peace you are plundered by them, in war by your enemies. And this because they have no tie or motive to keep them in the field beyond their paltry pay

When you want to fight a war fight a war with people who are not thinking in terms of strategy. The Chinese are highly stategic. They practise the Art of War of Sun Tzu. When you apply Sun Tzu you never fight a war. You exhaust your opponent. The best way to create a war is to tease your opponent to destroy himself.

My advice

If the current pattern is sustained my advice would be to find a hiding place. This hiding place has to be outside the area of the big earthquakes. It also has to be rather close to the equator because we will soon experience a new Ice Age. You have to be able to grow your own food so you need seeds and soil. Avoid the contaminated area’s in the world. The last thing is to avoid the battle ground of the last big war (Germany, Poland, Sweden).

How about Spain or Portugal?

Of course I could be wrong. Perhaps he is the real redeemer and I am deceiting myself because I don’t believe in honest politicians anymore. The best thing to do not to wait and see but to Act. The Citizens of the World don’t need big government to get into action. Creating networks is simple and everything you need is somewhere already available (even money). It is all about making the right connection!

LINKS

About Financial Warfare

About the FED Conspiracy

 The Grand Chessboard — American Primacy And It’s Geostrategic Imperatives,” Zbigniew Brzezinski, Basic Books, 1997

The text of the Prince of Machiavelli

Why the Russians always win a war

About the coming Ice Age

What is Happening in the Financial System

Friday, September 19th, 2008

The current Foundation of the World Financial System, the US Economy based on the Dollar, is in a Fatal Crisis. The Solution to the Current Crisis, Bailing Out, will finally Speed Up the Crisis. The real problem is moved to the Near Future, to another Level of Society (MiddleClass, the Poor) and to another part of the World. In the End it will fireback on the US itself and deepen the Recession that is already taking place.

Money represents a Value of Something. For a very long time money was based on the value of Gold. This foundation failed. The failure of the Gold Based Money system created the Great Depression and finally the Second World War. At this moment the Financial System is without any Foundation.

To prevent a Third World War the Bretton Woods Agreement was created in 1947. The foundation of the International Money System was based on the Dollar. In 1971 the US broke up the Agreement because it was unable to stabilize the International System. At that time the US was spending too much money to fight the war in Vietnam. It became a Debtor and remained a Debtor until today.

From that Time on the International Money System is Floating but the Foundation, the Dollar, is still used. The Euro is an alternative but it is almost impossible to move to the Euro without destroying the US Economy and the World Economy. Europe, China and even Russia are Forced to help the Biggest Debtor in the World to avoid the destruction of their own Financial System. In the mean time the Biggest Debtor in the World keeps on Spending. It is even Increasing its Spending Behavior.

Many people believe that the reason behind the Financial Crisis is the Credit Crunch. They believe mortgages are the cause of everything but the reason is much more complicated. The main reason are financial derivatives.

Derivatives are very complicated ways to gamble with money. They are so complicated that almost nobody is able to calculate the value of these financial instruments. They are so complicated that almost nobody is able to keep the books. The controllers of the banks lost the control a very long time ago.

 

Derivatives are the playingfield of dealers and the dealers are able to confuse almost everybody when they want to play their game. The effect of playing dealers has shown itself in many cases like the falldown of Barings. The Derivatives have transformed The Banking Industry into a Casino.

The US Government and its Allies are trying to avoid a new Great Depression by bailing out or protecting every US Bank, Insurance Company and other Company (Farmers, Chrysler, Boeing, Ford, ..) that is unable to pay its debts. The US Government is moving the huge and uncertain debt from the Market to the Government hoping the Market will Restore itself. They believe the Market is going Up and Down. Someday they will be able to Sell the current Debt with a Profit back to the Market.

The strange thing is that other countries are helping the US to protect their vital companies from a certain disaster. The US, the Protector of the Free Market, is protecting its Own market and the only reason why others are helping the US is to avoid a certain disaster on the level of the World. Strangely enough they are disturbing their own market to avoid the destruction of the market of their biggest competitor.

In the background investors, Countries and Companies are slowly moving out of the US Economy. The are investing in Europa (Warren Buffett) or are creating their own financial market and currency (China, Russia, India).Nobody believes the US will recover but they have to prevent a total meltdown.

China is even taking over control of the US Economy. With their enormouss funds they will be alble to “blackmail” the US. They are already doing this. The Chinese are in contrary to the US fighting the war with the Wapens of their Opponent. They know how to win without fighting.

What many peopl don’t realize is that the long term Economic Cycle (The Kondratiev) is going Down for about 26 years. We have entered a State of Compression in 2000. The Expansion of the World Economy during the last 26 years has stopped. We are just in the beginning of the Phase of Compression.

During the phase of compression the Baby Boomers will stop working. They have invested a lot of money to buy a pension. During the compression their pensions will evaporate. During the phase of compression many people will get old and ill. The Social System will be without any money to help them. Many people will move into a very angry state when they realize what really has happened.

During the Downfall The Debts will increase tremendously. The move from the Market to the Government (and the Tax Payer) is a temporary solution. Someday the Debts have to be repayed and the only thing US Govenment can do is to accept the fact that the US and the strongly related Western Economy will enter a state of Recession.

The Economic Activity will go Down but Social Activities will Move Up. When you are losing money somebody (Your Friends, Your Family, Your Community) has to help you.

What many people also don’t realize is that the very long time cycles are supporting the DownFall of the Economic System. The very long time cycles and especially the Cycle of the Precession is Jumping to a new Level. It is jumping to a higher level of Consciousness.

The current instability of the World System is not only visible in the Financial System. It shows itself in every System of the World. It shows itself in the Psychological System, the Cultural System, The Religiouss System, the Political System, the Ecological System, the Weather System and the Planetary System.

These Systems are highly interconnected. A Disaster in one of the Systems has an impact on all of the other Systems. When the Financial System is fixed, a Political Conflict (Russia) starts and the Financial System is unbalanced. When the Political System is stabilized a huge Earthquake or a giant Tornado will move the total System into unbalance. This will go on and on until everybody realizes that we are living in a Highly Interconnected Reality.

The only thing we can do is to act on the Level of Earth and Face Reality. We have to realize that all the Isolated Systems are One and the only thing we can do is to find Balance on Every Level.

We could start to Find Balance on the Level of the Human.

We could start to Reduce the Power of the Ego, Desire, by reducing our Needs.

We could start to Reduce the Power of our Expectation, our Thinking, and start to Trust the Other.

We could start to Empower our Imagination, Spirit, and Imagine a Shared Future.

We could start to Empower our Soul, Empathy, and start to Take Care of Others.

We could start to use our Consciousness and become Aware of what is really Happening.

Many people believe the current crisis will be a Fatal Crisis, a (Financial) Apocalyps. I don’t believe this will be the case.

Imagine a world were you are not Working all the time. Imagine a Life without Stress.

Imagine a World where You don’t have to Play Political Games to Survive.

Imagine a world where You could enjoy Nature.

Imagine a World were You are able to Help without Being Payd.

Imagine a World were you are able to Create when You want to do this. Imagine a World without War and Violence. The only thing You have to do is Leave a Little Bit of Your Current Luxury behind.

If this happens the Downfall of the Bad Buck would be replaced by a tremendous Rise of Good Luck.

LINKS

How the Great Depression was created

About Derivatives, Accountants, Greed and other terrible problems in the Banking Industry

 

 

How to Create the Perfect Need-Machine by Analyzing Personal Activity Patterns

Wednesday, March 26th, 2008

In the approach of Taylor and Ford, the employees and customers are treated as programmable machines.  The focus was on a perfect coordination of the senses, the muscles and the production system (the assembly line).  The emotions and the imagination were neglected.

In mass customization, the emotions are involved. In customer innovation, the imagination is imperative. In a demand oriented system all the parts of the human cognitive system have to play a role in a coherent and balanced way.

The human body acts on its environment with messages and action-patterns. The incoming and outgoing messages are observed by the senses and transformed to an internal format. The internal communication system sends the messages to the appropriate place in the body. The emotions are always looking for danger. They want to control the priority of the actions to make it possible for the body to react immediately. The imagination creates an image of the outside world and helps the body to generate scenario’s to improve its action-patterns. 

The senses are the connection to the physical outside world. They shield the human being from the enormous amount of signals that are trying to enter the body. They filter incoming data and transform the data in a standard internal format. When the senses detect an event, it is evaluated by the emotions. If the event is not important, nothing happens. It the event is unusual it becomes aware in the conscious. Events that are highly repeating are not noticed after some time. An internal program (an action-pattern) automates the handling of the event.

The muscles act in physical space. They acquire an enormous amount of reaction-patterns by repeated practicing. Humans learn from their failures. When the senses detect an event, many appropriate patterns are located and enabled. 

When the patterns enter mental space, they change into models. Complicated patterns are compressed into models. Humans use all kinds of compression techniques to make the world compact and therefore more understandable. Static models (e.g. an organization contains employees) compress the world in wholes (nouns) and parts (attributes). They create identities. Dynamic models (the employee sells a product) compress causal chains (event, actor, result). They make it possible to reason.

Models behave the same way as sensors do in physical space. They shield the mental space of the human being from the enormous amount of ideas that the imagination is producing.

The emotions act on hostile and friendly forces. They shield the body from physical injuries (avoiding pain) and take care of the self re-production process of the body (looking for food and a sexual partner).

The emotional system determines the amount of resources that is allocated to the evaluation and the search for adequate action patterns. If an event is dangerous, all resources in the body are used. The body reacts without thinking and uses a biological inherited and fast pattern (fight, flight, freeze, the primary emotions). If there is enough time to react, the emotional system evaluates its preferences and enables the preferred actions-patterns.

If the preferences are related to a long-term perspective, they enter mental space and the human has a choice to make. In the evaluation of long-term preferences, the other plays an important role. People want to take care of the other (family, friends, children), are afraid to get in to a conflict (dominance, status) and want to be praised by the other for what they are accomplishing.

Humans imagine (by creating pictures connected with feelings) what events they like to happen (a wish). When they are pessimistic, they imagine what events they do not want to happen (a fear).  The imagination is the innovative part of the human mental space that generates all kinds of new connections (ideas). The imagination is also the most free to play with new ideas. People can simulate and practice in their imagination without getting into trouble. The imagination produces the idea of the identity.

The imagination uses visual metaphors to create an understandable world. On the lowest level the metaphors are connect to the action patterns. The image of a cup is connected to picking up the cup, holding the cup and moving the cup. New structures are blended with old familiar structures.

Many metaphors make use of the human understanding of technology.  Freud based his theory of the unconsciousness on his understanding of the steam-machine (“I am steamed up with emotions”). Many theories of the mind are based on the metaphor of the computer. People always relate new phenomena to something they already understand. They sometimes do this (in the eyes of others) in very strange ways.  A skilful teacher knows this and tries to find the bridge (the right metaphor, a story) between his world and the world of the student.

In the human body, all the sub-systems (e.g. the services, the organs) are connected by shared communication-channels. There are fast (the nervous system) and slow reacting shared channels (the endocrine system). All the sub-systems use specific messenger-molecules to communicate their actions and act on incoming messengers.  Messengers materialize with every thought we create and with every emotion we feel. When a messenger enters the boundary of a sub-system, (e.g. a cell) it triggers messengers that are specific for that sub-system.

The action patterns make the muscles move according to a movements-plan that is stored in memory. The movement-plans of the muscles enable people to walk, to work (using tools) and to talk. In this last case, people communicate their intentions. The human communication contains a complicated mix of signals that are related to the emotions (e.g. visual expressions, gestures), the patterns (assertions) and the imagination (visual images, ideas).

People resist change. The patterns they have acquired control their behavior and determine their potential. People do not want to change their patterns dramatically. They want to acquire new patterns (by doing) without noticing the change. Only a major event (a critical moment), mostly with negative impact, can have a radical effect. If this event happens it takes a very long time to recover and get into harmony again. When people have to adjust their patterns too often, they experience stress and on the long run get sick.

If people cannot adjust their patterns, they have to involve the other parts of the cognitive system. When they involve the emotions, they have to set priorities and make a choice. People do not like making choices. They are incapable of evaluating all the possibilities. They can also make use of the senses and look at the real opportunities in the outside world. People are almost incapable of doing this because their imagination produces the images it wants to see. If the imagination really faces the facts, the identity is attacked. It feels powerless and unable to control his path of destiny. The last possibility a human has is to adjust the imagination. He has to realize that the possibilities he imagined were just illusions.

If everything stays the same, people get bored. They hope that an event will occur that relates to their wishes. People are the most satisfied if their environment produces just enough change (a challenge) they can cope with. They want a balance between the will (what they want, the imagination, variation) and their capabilities (what they are able to do, predictability, the patterns, their skills).

In a perfect demand oriented economy, a supplier has to provide a challenge to the customer. To provide this challenge the supplier has to understand the wishes and the fears (the imagination) of the customer, his behavior (the patterns) and the balance between the two parts. If the customer is out of balance the supplier has to help the customer to acquire new patterns (learning), help him to make a choice (advice) or show him the real opportunities (scenario’s) taking care of the customers identity.  

It is very difficult for a supplier to get accurate information. Most people are unable to make their behavioral patterns conscious. When people are asked about their opinion (an aspect of the emotions), they often do not want to offend the other and give proper answers. People only want to share their most secret wishes with people they trust (partner, family, friends). Correct information about the customer can only be acquired by carefully observing and analyzing the activities of the customer (what he is doing).  It is completely impossible for a company to observe the activities of all their customers. The only one who can do this is the customer himself.

Customers can observe their activities if they were able to gather personal activity-patterns, get the opportunity to analyze their behavior, and share their activity-patterns with others to get an advice. Most of the needed data is somewhere already available (patient records, buying behavior, payments etc) or can be made available by making connections to the tools the consumer is using in his personal- and work-environment (Emails, Content). The only thing that has to happen is that companies and government agencies make these patterns, which are most of the time privately owned by the customer, available.

It can be envisioned that all personal data is kept in a private space. Only the customer (the owner) can make the data available to others. This approach would prevent many problems in the current situation (e.g. spam).

The last step in a perfect rational demand oriented system is reached when the personal activity-patterns are automatically transformed in standardized need-messages that are sent out to appropriate providers.

About “Just-in-Time”-Learning or Why we are still Waiting for Educational Simulators

Thursday, February 14th, 2008

Learning is an autonomous process. Human beings (and other organisms) respond to a change in their internal or external environment. We are not able to adapt to every change but small and gradual changes are implemented without noticing.

When you play the piano and pay attention to the notes your fingers are playing, your fingers will remember the notes they are playing. After some time you are able to find the notes by “letting your fingers go their way“.

Education is forced learning. We want somebody to acquire knowledge or a practice in the timeframe we have defined. Some people are able to do this with ease others fail.

In the old days children were educated in the context they lived in. Most of the time they copied the activities of their parents. The girls became a mother and the boys took over the practice of their father. Some of them failed and went their own way.

At this moment children are unable to learn in the context they live in. School is a completely artificial context where people are forced to learn what the “policy-makers” have defined.

Children learn without any force outside the school-environment and in certain situations this environment is an environment the “policy-makers” don’t like. Children learn to survive in a ghetto and are trained to become a thief or a seller of drugs.

What we see is a conflict between “real life” and “constructed or abstract life“. In about a hundred years we have created a highly abstract environment and this environment needs workers to sustain itself.

The abstract environment changes with an increasing speed. When somebody is trained to repair a car the car is changed into a highly computerized system and repairing is only possible when the computer tells the mechanic what to.

Adding numbers and multiplying numbers was educated at school. The calculating machine changed the game. The only thing you have to learn is to use the calculator.

The educational system is far behind the abstract world we are creating. It is forcing young people to learn things but they are unable to motivate why. The industry needs people to operate the machines but when they have trained their employees the world has changed.

The outside (abstract or imaginary world) is distancing itself from the internal world of human being and the real world they live in. The communication industry creates its own imaginary world that is shown in movies and games.

Why do young people have to spend so much time in a constructed environment that is totally disconnect from every part of the outside world it was aimed at?

The solution to this problem was invented a very long time ago and it is was called Life-Long-Learning. If we start to learn something we really need we learn without any problem.

Why is life-long-learning or “just-in-time”-learning not implemented?

Why are policy-makers writing big documents about this issue but are not implementing their vision?

The main reason is that they want to implement this concept in the “old fashioned educational system” using the old fashioned tools and the old fashioned employees.

The world has changed everywhere but the Educational System is still in the state of 50 years ago. This is really a very strange situation.

The first problem we have to solve is when “just-in-time“-learning has to start in life. Let us pick an age. Say 13 or 14. It is the time when many children start to have a job.

In the vision of “just-in-time-learning” this is the moment to give them the opportunity to make mistakes and ask questions that are “to-the-point”.

When children change (= learn) and are “adapted” we could change their environment and add complexity. In the end some of them could become even brilliant scientists. There are many examples in history of “self-made” scientists (Faraday).

I can imagine that you have a lot of arguments to show that this is a totally unpractical solution.

We could do something else. We could simulate “real-life’ and change the educational environment into a game.

Again I ask you why this has not been done until today. Well the first answer is that it has been done and there are already very effective educational games on the market. Some of them are even for free.

The second answer is that they are blocked by the educational publishers that make a lot of money by selling books and of course they are blocked by the teachers who don’t know what to do when children are learning without them.

Jane Roberts and Wolfgang Pauli Explain the Bridge between Psychology and Quantum Mechanics

Friday, October 26th, 2007

sethThe books of Jane Roberts (1929-1984) had a deep impact on my “Scientific” insight about the Universe. The books of Seth are still valid and many things that were explained by Seth are now proven to be true.

Jane Roberts was a writer and a channel. In this state she was taken over by an entity called Seth.

I became interested in Seth and Jane when I was a student (Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Psychology, Philosophy).

Seth dictated many theories of physics that were at that time (1980) rather unknown. Jane was totally not educated in my field of Science. I wondered how this was possible.

Seth explained that there are four universes where we live in and these four universes are part of a multitude of other universes.

What Seth explained was the so called many-worlds-hypothesis.

It was formulated to explain Quantum Mechanics (The so called Oxford Explanation). Bohr and Heisenberg formulated another explanation (The Copenhagen Explanation).

The four worlds are: the Physical universe, a Dream universe, the Electrical and an Anti-Matter universe (Our Twin Universe). The last one was not explained by Seth. The Twin Universe was outside his Frame of Reference.

Our physical universe is created by the power of our mental projections. When people share the same projections they are able “to Move Mountains”.

You usually think, for example, that your feelings about a given event are primarily reactions to the event itself. It seldom occurs to you that the feelings themselves might be primary, and that the particular event was somehow a response to your emotions, rather than the other way around. The all-important matter of your focus is largely responsible for your interpretation of any events”.

This is an important insight. It is a very powerful tool for change. When a collective projects Peace on Earth or The Restoration of Nature it will happen. The Mass Media could help by projecting “positive thoughts”. At this moment they accomplish the opposite.

Seth also gives an explanation of Time/Space (The Chronotope). Past and Future coexist with the Present. They are created in the Now. This is currently the most interesting theory explaining strange effects (the Bell Tests) in Quantum Physics.

inner selfAll our “Representations (“bodies”)” in Time/Space (the “many worlds“) are in direct contact with something called the Inner Self. The Inner Self is the Observer and it gives “feed-back” to all the representations.

In every representation the Inner Self comes through as Intuition or the “Inner Voice”. It helps its “occurrences” to find Balance or Harmony. Most of the time people are not able to listen. When this happens they move away from their Path (Tao).

The Inner Self also influences our exterior. It gives us Signs. Most people in the West don’t understand or see the Signs.

If they see a Dove in a place where there are no doves (a strange coincedence) they don’t understand that The Higher Self is advising them to follow their Heart and stop Thinking (The Dove is the Symbol of Sufism and Gnostics).

Later in this Blog I want to tell you about Wolfgang Pauli. He was a very intelligent Scientist involved in the creation of Quantum Mechanics. He was gifted with a strange talent called the Pauli Effect.

Everywhere he came “Psycho-Kinetic Effects” started to happen. These effects could not be explained by Science. They were always connected to something Pauli was Trying to Find Out. The Signs contained a Deeper Symbolic Meaning.

Seth explained that to use Jane Roberts he had to shift to another “frequency” in the Universe. His Time/Space was on another “Plane of Vibration“.

To get into contact with Jane he had to create a “Resonance-Pattern (a channel)” with the “Standing-Wave” of Jane Roberts.

When this channel was accomplished he was able to link his Symbols to the Symbols of Jane. Jane was not chosen by accident. Her “State of Mind” was able to resonate with the State of Seth.

When you want to channel your “State” is crucial to the connections you are making in this “strange” Universe. When you’re “wave-length” is “low” you attract “lower” entities of other planes of vibration. They will tell different stories because they are not aware of the “higher” planes.

The same applies to your contacts on Earth. You attract people of the “Same Wavelength“. When you’re wavelength is low this does not mean that You are a Bad Person. It means that something is connected to you that is influencing you’re wavelength.

magicianAlthough this sounds strange people are able to give “their problems” to others. This is a big problem when you are Empathic (from the Heart). I am Empathic and it took me a very long time to understand why I was carrying “Strange Moods” when there was no reason for it.

When you are an Emphat you are able to understand people with ease but when you “move into the other” without any protection the chances are high that you take something over. The Others love you for this. They feel refreshed and happy and You are suddenly in their state.

When we translate channeling in “Getting an In-Spiration” we can see that channeling is not new. It happened in every time in the History of Humanity. An inspiration is received when you are able to Articulate your Intuition. A very important condition is Tension.

When you are looking for an answer and time is running out You suddenly know! Artists use this (called dead-lining) to make sure their expression is the best they can do. They have to wait for the Magic Moment and when this moment appears they are taking over by the Creative Force.

In earlier times these people were called Magicians, Prophets, Druids, See-ers, Artists, Bards and Poets. In our time the distinction is much more difficult to make.

In every place in Society there are people who are equipped with a strong Intuition and/or Empathy. A nice test to find out “What you Really Are” is the Myers Briggs Test.

Many very important discoveries in science appeared when people got into a highly intuitive state induced by Tension. A famous example is the “discovery” of the Benzene Ring by Kekulé.

A very interesting case is Wolfgang Pauli.

ezekielJung (1875-1961) and Pauli (1900-1958) met in 1930 when Pauli asked Jung to help him with his Emotional and Psychological Tensions. Jung reviewed thirteen hundred of Pauli’s dreams and studied a selection from the first four hundred of these. Pauli was a brilliant scientist, highly involved in the creation of Quantum Mechanics.

Jung was never able to understand everything Pauli discovered. He was not a mathematician. What nobody understood at that time was that Pauli was creating the Bridge between Physics and Psychology.

He found this bridge when he started to study Alchemy. He found out that the so called Lumen Naturae (Paracelcus), the Light of Nature, or “Spirit in Matter” was “The manifestation of something deeper, an Unus Mundus that is also the domain of Symmetry“.

He believed that this Light was the Source where “Mind and Matter, Religion and Science originate“.

At this moment Symmetry is the most important issue in Physics. It is needed to solve the “Multi Dimensional String“-equation (The Beta Function) that is played by the Cosmic Violin Player in Super String Theory.

What Pauli discovered was that there are two worlds. The Masculin World of Order (The Circle) and the Female World of Chaos (The Square). When the two worlds connect Synchronicity takes place.

The Masculin World is controlled by Rhythms, Patterns and Clocks. Many people think this is a Power who is Controlling Human Destiny called God.

In reality it a Power that is Able to Create. It is able to create when We, the Humans, use it. It is the Power Seth talks about when he explains the Power of our Mental Projections.

worldclockOne of the most important dreams of Pauli is the dream of the World Clock: “There is a vertical and a horizontal circle, having a common centre. …

The vertical circle is a blue disc with a white border divided into 4 X 8 — 32 partitions. A pointer rotates upon it.

The horizontal circle consists of four colours. On it stand four little men with pendulums, and round it is laid the ring that was once dark and is now golden (formerly carried by four children).

The world clock has three rhythms or pulses:

1) The small pulse: the pointer on the blue vertical disc advances by 1/32.

2) The middle pulse: one complete rotation of the pointer. At the same time the horizontal circle advances by 1/32.

3) The great pulse: 32 middle pulses are equal to one complete rotation of the golden ring. …It is supported by the black bird“.

It is very clear that Pauli saw a “modern” version of the Vision of Ezekiel.

rosarium03The Female World (the Moon) is the World of the Game played on the Square. It is the World where The Human is a co-creator with a Power that shows Herself as a Trickster. The Male World of the Sun is the world of Control and Order. The Male World defines the Rules that are Played when the Game is created.

She is Playing Games to show the Human that he has aquired Free Choice (not Free Will) and HAS TO USE IT. “God” will never interfere with our Free Choice because Our Free Choice is God. God is the creator of the many paths that are there to explore.

When both World (Male and Female) are in Harmony, the Human Co-Creates with The Creative Force (The Dove, The Holy Spirit) of God and moves unto the Path that is created for him to explore. This Path is there to learn the lessons that his Soul has chosen to learn in the Learning Simulator called Earth.

The Past and the Future are already there and the Now is the starting point to move back and forwards in Time and Up and Down in the Six Multi-Universes that are connected to our Seventh Universe, the Universe of the Heart.

The idea that Future and Past are interacting in the Now is called Wheeler-Feynman Absorber Theory. It predicts that the Future influences the Now.

Jung asked Marie-Louise Von Franz (Number and Time) to research the domains of Pauli he was unable to understand.

When I searched the Internet to find more about Pauli  and Von Franz when I found the website of Remo Roth.

HeartChakraRemo Roth and Marie Louise von Frantz worked together to explore Pauli’s heritage.

It is now 33 years ago that I began to dream and have visions about the Seal of Solomon. In one of the first visions dating from July 1973 I saw two open graves. One of them had a tomb stone with a Christian Cross on its top, the other one a stone with the Seal of Solomon, the Heart Chakra, chiselled into its surface”.

“Further, already in 1974 I read in Marie-Louise von Franz’ book Number and Time about a dream/vision/audition of “a modern physicist” that dealt with the Seal of Solomon and the square – exactly the symbolism also my vision talked about.

Of course I was completely fascinated by this vision and asked Marie-Louise von Franz about the dreamer. She allowed me then to publish his name; it was Wolfgang Pauli“.

In April 24, 1948 the foundation of the C.G. Jung institute took place. When Pauli entered the room, a so-called Pauli effect occurred. Without any outer cause a Chinese vase fell onto the floor and the water poured out, resulting in a flood. Symbolically seen, we can say that this psychokinetic event was a Chinese water flood“.

Pauli had begun to deal with the hermetic alchemist Robert Fludd, who wrote his name in Latin as Robertus de Fluctibus. Therefore, we can conclude that these two events belong to a Synchronicity, the psychic (inner) event of it consisting in the tension in Pauli concerning the dispute between Johannes Kepler and Robert Fludd, the physical (outer) event in this strange psychokinetic anomaly, the Pauli effect of the overturned vase, resulting in a flood“.

robert fluddSymbolically seen we can say that the meaning of this flood is as follows: An archetypal conception which has a lot to do with “Watery” and “Being Liquid”, which was still living in Fludd’s hermetic alchemy, but repressed after Johannes Kepler, wishes to be integrated in the new Zeitgeist of the 21st century (The Age of Aquirius, the Water Bearer)” .

In Robert Fludd’s hermetic alchemy the world soul, the anima mundi, was still the vinculum amoris (ligament of love) of matter and spirit. Thus, we can conclude that a meaning of Pauli’s synchronicity is the challenge of going back behind Kepler to Robert Fludd with the goal of finding a new synthesis of the Divine Male Principle with the Female“.

By means of a symmetrical symbol, the Seal of Solomon, which pursued him in so many dreams and visions, Pauli is now able to define the dark female part, matter, as a mirrored image of the spiritual layer, and vice versa. This material trinity unifies with the spiritual one, leading by this into a new sphere, the psyche which he calls here the “realm of the middle” (i.e., China)”.

What Roth is trying to show is that we are at a “Point of Transition“. We have to stop Male Dominance (Order) but we also have to stop Female Dominance (Chaos, The Trickster, Playing Games). What we have to accomplish is a New Synthesis of the Divine Male and the Divine Female principle (The Holy Wedding). We have to start to act with Spirit and our Soul again. We have to use the Creative Power that comes out of our Heart.

The “Realm of the Middle” has a lot to do with China. The Culture of China was aimed at Harmony. The Seal of Salomon “symbolizes a potential world that contains a new creation”. This New World is the world of Aquirius. When we want to find its foundation we have to Move back in History and Start all over Again. We have to become aware that We Are The Creators and we have to Take the Responsibilty for our Creations.

Raimundus_Lullus_alchemic_pageWe have to move back to the time of Alchemists (Fludd, Paracelsus), the Essenes or when you believe this, even to Le-MU-ria to find the “Old Tools of Creation” (The first Emperors of China came from the Land of MU).

As a psychotherapist and healer I have the possibility to penetrate into the deepest depths of the collective soul. Therefore I can testify that this renewed God-image, the Seal of Solomon, is constellated in many humans of today”. “These observations showed me that all these people were or are already being transformed into a modern mystic, even when they did not know this consciously” (Are You aware of this?).

As the well-known Jewish myth researcher Gershom Sholem stresses, the Seal of Solomon or Star of David is not of a specific Jewish origin. This symbol occurs therefore throughout the whole world, in many different cultures, so for example as a symbol of the heart Chakra anahata in the Buddhist and Hindu Tantrism or in the heart of the Sufis of Islam mysticism

This is a citation of Seth: “What we need is a whole new myth of man and his beginnings, one that leapfrogs local gods and places God inside his creatures, within creation. We need a god as blessed or flawed as its creations, a whole new cosmology giving birth to a God that is male and female, Jew, Arab, American, Chinese, Indian; that is within each individual alike; that is not parochial and not man’s alone; a god that is within stones and stars; a god-goddess big enough to be personified as a Buddha, Christ, Isis, Athena, Muhammed-animal god, insect god, tree god; each seen as a local symbol standing for an unexplainable reality that is too super-real to fit our definitions. We need a new myth, imaginative and creative enough to leap above our puny facts

LINKS

About Robert Fludd & the Magic of the Memory Palace

An Article about the Relationship between Pauli and Jung

An Article about Pauli’s World Clock

The Website about Pauli of Remo Roth

About Gnostics

About Alchemy 

About Alchemy and Logic

About Egyptian Alchemy

About Heliopolis

About Old Fashioned Thinking

About Al-Khemia

About InterPersonal Theory

Saturday, September 22nd, 2007

interpersonal

World Views are Perspectives on the Inner and Outer World. “Every man has his own Universe” so there are so many Perspectives as there are (and were) Humans. To communicate we have to decrease the Amounts of Perspectives.

Will McWhinney has found a model that covers most of the perspectives of the Human Being. It contains Four Perspectives circulating around a Center. His model is Self-Referencial (A Fractal) which means that the Model can be Applied on its Self.

It can be expanded to the Infinite Perspectives of all the Humans on Earth by detecting the Right Enfolding of the Fractal Pattern.

When I was working with Will McWhinney on his theory of World-Views I found many theories that could be mapped to his Theory of Change. The World Views proved to be a generic explanation of almost everything. This was a big surprise.

One of the sciences that interested me the most was Psychology. I studied Philosophy, Psychology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics and kept my knowledge of these fields always Up-To-Date.

My main problem with Psychology was the conceptual  mess it was in. I read book after book and all the time new ideas came up. It was fascinating but also frustrating.

Suddenly I found a book that helped me to see everything from one Perspective. The book contained a Model and I was able to Map the model to the World Views with ease.

The book I found was Horowitz, L. M. (2004). Interpersonal foundations of psychopathology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Interpersonal theory looks at the world from the perspective of Relationships.

According to attachment theorists, the infant’s attachment system keeps the child close and connected to the adult, thereby increasing the child’s chances of surviving infancy. As children come to feel sufficiently secure in their attachment to the caretaker, they separate from the caretaker and explore the environment, a first step toward autonomy.

When a person initiates an interaction with another person, the other assumes that the behavior is motivated (purposeful). When an important goal is satisfied, the person experiences a positive emotion; when it is frustrated, the person experiences a negative emotion like sadness or anger.

Internal motivations can be conflicting. This can result in serious mental disorders. The interpretation of the motivation of the other is often ambiguous leading to misunderstanding and even conflict. To resolve these potential conflicts an open dialogue is necessary where people make their motives clear to others (and themselves).

Motivational constructs (desire, motive and personal striving) can be conceptualized in two very broad, abstract categories, namely, Communion and Agency.

A Communal motive is a motive for a connection with one or more others; it is a motive to participate in a larger union with other people. A communional motive can range from Indifferent (no connection) to Love (a complete connection).

An Agentic motive, on the other hand, emphasizes the self as a distinct unit; it focuses on the person’s own individual influence, control, or mastery over the self, other people, and the environment. An agentic motive can range from Dominating to Submitting.

Interpersonal behavior can be described with the so-called Interpersonal Circumplex (a Cycle). This is a widely tested model that predicts the reaction of a person to a Motive (a combination of agency and communion) of the other.

The motivational behavior of a person is more or less determined in his youth. People that are extreme in the connection/agency-matrix (e.g. indifferent to the other, too dependent, very dominant or submissive) are unable to work in a collaborative manner. They are Psychopathic.

Interpersonal Theory is very helpful to understand relationships.

interpersonal2

The Interpersonal Circumplex or Interpersonal Cycle suggests that there are Infinite Types of Relationships. Some of them are named (Friendly, Dominant) most of them are not named.

When two persons are reacting according to the complementary expected behavior of the Other they feel “Related“. A highly dominant partner, a Master, needs a highly submissive partner, a Slave,  and vice versa.

By using the World Views Interpersonal Theory can be easily mapped to other Psychological Subjects like Learning. When we use the method of Mapping it can also be transformed to Art, History, Ecology, Mathematics and Physics.

To use the Four World Views (Unity, Sensory, Social and Mythic) we have to Map the Matrix of Horowitz to the Matrix of McWhinney .

Sensory people (Experts) are disconnected from their Self (Ego-istic). They are focused on the Senses (Facts).  An addiction to the Senses is called Schizophrenic.

Mythic (Artist)  is a Union with the Self. Mythic people are highly Imaginative and Creative. An addiction to the imagination is called Histrionic.

Social is a Union with Others. Social people are highly Emotional and influenced by the Other (Status). An addiction to the emotions is called Dependent.

A Unity (Master) is disconnected from the Self. Unity people want to control the Future. They are planning and expecting. An addiction to Control is called Paranoid.

Consciousness, the Observer,  the Center of the Cycle, is a Balance between Communion and Agency. People that are Constantly Out of Balance are called Neurotic.

What is Happening?

Paths of Change explains why Life is a Paradox.  It is a Paradox because the World Views are completely independent. They are valid ways of Looking At the World.

Normal” people combine Two or more Worldviews and are able to Switch from one View to the Other but they always look with one View at the Time.

Normal” people are mentally ill but we don’t see their illness because they are Switching all the time.

The Switch is called a Relation in Interpersonal Theory.  It connects two parts that are disconnect and will always be disconnect.

Is there a Structure behind this Structure?

Behind the Four WorldViews lies a much simpler structure. This structure contains just Two Views, the View of Control and the View of Desire.

Control is the proces of Compression. Control makes thing simple and essential. It brings everything back to the Void, the state of Infinite Potential.

Desire is the process of Expansion. Expansion makes things more complex. It generates an infinite amount of new combinations. It moves away from the Infinite Potential.

Control and Desire are Complementary Powers. When they join they are annihilated. If this happens They combine and become the Void again.

Control and Desire are constantly moving around the Void to A-Void that they move back to the state of the No-Thing, that is Every Thing.

The Four Views are nothing but Four Combinations of the Two that are Avoiding the Void which is the Center, the Connector, the Relation, the Switch, between Every Thing.

LINKS

A website about Interpersonal Theory

About the Interpersonal Circumplex

About Learning and Interpersonal Theory

About WorldViews

About the Void and The Logic of Creation

About Wordviews and the History of Literature

About WorldViews and the Cycle of History

About Mapping