Posts Tagged ‘Asia’

About the Hospital

Tuesday, June 8th, 2010

In the Middle Ages Medical Knowledge was based  on a world view in which Destiny, Sin, and Astral influences played an important role. An Illness was a Re-Action of God to a Sin caused by the Act of an Evil Spirit. People believed in Destiny and Predestination.

At that time the belief in Heaven and Hell was total. Medieval Peasants were taught that the only way to Heaven and salvation was via the Church. Therefore people worked on Church land for free.

Money dues were paid to the church for baptism, marriage and death. Also every year, each family paid a tenth of its yearly worth to the Church. Such an income made the Church fabulously wealthy and powerful. It gained vast areas of land and it was on this land that monasteries were built.

The word ‘hospital’ derives from the Latin ‘hospes’, meaning stranger, foreigner, or guest.  Hospitals were originally created as a Hostel for the Entertainment of travelers, but were later refounded as hospital for the sick. In the Middle Ages the cheapest place to find a cure was the Hospital of a Monasterie.

The Medieval Value System was based on the Seven Acts of Mercy ( Feed the hungry, Give drink to the thirsty, Clothe the naked, Shelter the Homeless, Visit the sick, Visit the imprisoned, Bury the dead) established by Pope Innocentius III (1198-1216).

The Monastries were obliged to take care for the travelling pilgrims for free. Many sick people stayed at the hospitals of the monasteries to recover (or to die).

Seven Acts of Mercy

The Seven Acts of Mercy

At the end of the Middle Ages the Merchants of the Big Cities took over the Power of the Church of Rome. The income of the Church went down dramatically. The amount of poor (and sick) people moving to the Big Cities increased and the Costs of the Free of Charge Hospitals went up.

At the Council of Trent (1545) the Church of Rome decided that the Cities would take over the responsibility and the payment for the Hospitals. From that time on the Hospitals were run by the Merchants as a Commercial Company. The Seven Acts of Mercy lost their meaning. The only thing that counted was making Profit.

The Council of Trent

The Council of Trent

The managers of the Hospitals made a distinction between paying and poor non-paying patients. The patients with an income  had to pay for their food and everything else that was needed. The sick poor people were put into Almshouses who were paid out of the charity of the Rich.

At that time the Guilds became a very important power in the Cities. They regulated just like the Unions today almost everything to avoid competition and took care of the Healthcare and Education of their members.

medievalhospital2

The Hospitals even made money with the Sale of the Dead body of a poor person to an Anatomical Theatre. The Theatre was used for Entertainment and the Education of the Guild of Surgeons.

anatomical lesson

The Rich People were treated in their Own Houses by the Doctores Medicinae, educated at the University. The Doctores used a Medical Theory that was based on Analogy (the Four Humors ). This system looks a lot like the Ancient Practice of Chinese Medicine. The System of the Four Humors was based on Four Personality Types. At that time it was believed that the Mind, the Spirit, was more important than the Body.

The patients were mostly treated with herbs that carried the “signature” of the Disease (Homeopathy).  The “dirty” work was done by Barbers (Bloodletting) and Surgeons who were part of the Guild System. The Bloodletting Points have a lot in common with the Acupuncture Points of Chinese Medicine.

The System of the Four Humors was abondoned by the Medical Profession at the End of the 19th century but is still used in Psychology (Archetypes of Jung, Interpersonal Theory, Big Five).

The BloodLetting Points

The BloodLetting Points

In the 19th Century in the Middle of the Industrial Revolution the Quality of the Medical System was at its deepest point in History.

The Factories took over the work of the Guilds who until that time took care of the Healthcare of their members. In the Big Cities the Owners of the Factories took over control. Some of them started to create Healtcare Facilities for their own Factory Workers.

Many people moved to the big cities to find work and failed to do this. The hygiene in the Cities with its open sewers was very low.  Epidemic after epidemic hit the highly vulnarable poor population of the cities.

The Symbol of the Daughter of Charity, the Heart Chakra

The Symbol of the Confrerie de Charité, the Immaculate Heart of Mary, the Heart Chakra.

The innovation of the Health System began in France. In 1617 Vincent de Paul started the Confrerie de Charité. The Daugthers of Charity were rich unmarried women who devoted their lifes to the care of poor and sick people.

In 1633 the first nursing school was started by Louise Legas-de Marillac. In 1836 Theodor Fliedner in Germany together with Elisabeth Fry in England founded a comparable institute of young women of the Protestant Faith called the Deaconesses.

From that time on the Catholic and Protestant Nurses started to reorganize the Medical System. Hundreds of new Hospitals were created in Europe, Asia and the United States.

soers vincent paul

Vincent de Paul and the Daugthers of Charity

In the first half of the 20th century, medicine was completely revolutionized with the explosion of the use of medical technology.

Some of the medical technologies invented in this period were the thermometer, the stethoscope, the microscope, the ophthalmoscope, the laryngoscope, and the x-ray. With these medical devices, doctors were able to Sense parts of the patient’s body such as lungs, and hearts. In the beginning the specialists created their own diagnostic centres with their big tools in the center.

x-ray

Physicians in early 19th century mostly practiced General Medicine including Mental Diseases. At that time the Church was still the most important factor in the Cure of Mental Diseases.

In England at the beginning of the nineteenth century there were, a few thousand ‘lunatics‘ housed in a variety of disparate institutions. After the Creation of the Psychiatric Specialism by 1900 that figure had grown to about 100,000.

When a Specialism is created it creates its own diseases and of course its own patients. The Health Care Industy generates its own Market.

Because of medical technology the  development of specialities occured at a very fast rate. In 1930s, 1 out of every 4 doctors was a medical specialist. By 1980, 4 out of 5 doctors were specialists. The extreme specialization of the Physicians created a highly fragmented view on the Human Body and the Human Mind.

At this moment every small part of the Human is analyzed and treated but the effects of the treatment on the other parts is often not known. This  generates Side-Effects which create knew diseases which create new diseases.

apothecary

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries apothecaries started to produce their own drugs in small factories. Later these small factories where joined into one big Chemical Plant. One of the most powerfull conglomerates in the Health Care Industry,  IG Farben ,was created in 1926 in Germany.

At this moment the Pharmaceutical Industry is the most important Power in the Medical Ecology. It influences governments, customers and physicians in their decisions to diagnose and cure a disease. To sell their drug the companies create and promote new diseases.

The main effect of this development is that a huge part of the treatment of patients is based on “chemical warfare” against sometimes artificial created enemies.

Pavillion Hospital

Pavillion Hospital

Until the end of the 19th Century Hospitals looked like Churches. The main function of the Hospitals was to Take Care of the Sick, the task of the Sisters of Charity, the Nurses. The Physicians did not play an important role. At the end of the 19th Century the Medical Profession was not highly valued.

When the Specialized Diagnostic Centres were created the Hospitals changed into a Pavillion. The Patients were moved from Center to Center. At that time the Medical Specialists took over the power in the Hospital. It was also the moment when the System of the Sisters of Charity started to dissolve. Taking Care became a Profession instead of a vocation although many Nurses are still “called” to their profession.

In the last step the Diagnostic, Operational and Care centres of the hospital were fused into one Big Highly Specialized Integrated Building.

What is Happening?

Many people are highly dissatisfied with the Current Medical System. They know that the Fragmented Technological  Approach will not solve the problems of their Whole Body and Mind. A huge amount of money is spend at so called Alternative Medicine. This field is just like the Current Medical System highly fragmented and the quality of the practioners is not clear.

What we need is a new approach in which the Reactive Fragmented World of Western Technology and the Preventive Eastern Word of Wholeness are United.

What is Going to Happen?

Medical Technology will  take over Medicine just like Technology will taken over every other Profession.

It will not take long until an Intelligent Diagnostic System will be much Smarter than every Specialist on Earth.

It will not take long until there are portable Sensors that are able to Measure everything that is happening in Your Body.

It will not take long until the Diagnostic System will send you the Medicine (or an Advise) you need long before you even think about going to the Doctor.

A complementary approach to the Western Reactive mostly “Chemical approach is the Eastern Preventive approach.

In this case the Electro Magnetic (Chi) Field of the Body will play an important role. The E/M Field of your Body is the most sensitive system. It can easily be used to balance all the other Systems.

Of course we have to integrate Body (Medicine) and Mind (Psychology) in our Preventive Approach.  The State of Mind of a Person is one of the most important causes of a disease.

It will not take a long time until the Sensors will be able to detect a fatal State of Stress in your Body caused by your Mind.

It will not take long until the People with an Intuitive Medical Talent, the Healers, will become more important than Highly Advanced Diagnostic Tools.

It will not take long before the Preventive Approach will completely take over the Reactive Approach.

If this happens we don’t need the Healthcare System anymore.

What will Happen with the Hospital?

At this moment big investments are made in huge Hospitals. If the Future develops the way it goes these Big Buildings will not be needed anymore.

Treatment and Care will take place in your own House just as happened with the Rich People in the Past.

The only question is.

Will there be enough Caretakers (Nurses?)  to Take Care of you or will the Robots take over their task?

Perhaps we have to revive the Daughters (and Sons?) of Charity!

LINKS

Why Stress is the cause of many diseases

About the Calvinistic Work Ethic

About Smart Sensor Systems

About Acupuncture and the E/M-Field

About the History of Psychiatry

About the Four Personality Types

About Vocation

About the Industrial Revolution

About the History of IG Farben

About Music as a Utility, The Vision of Ger Leonard

Tuesday, April 15th, 2008

The Utility as a concept is hot. Many visionaries predict “something” will be sold and consumed like “Water, Gas or Electricity”. It will flow through the Internet directly into our User-Interface (Mobile Phone, Television, ..) and we will pay a “flat fee” for every thing.

Like all “hot issues”, hypes and trends there is something wrong and something right. Finding out “what’s wrong” gives us an idea about the reality of the vision.

I want to concentrate this blog on the future of Music or Music 2.0, a free downloadable book of visionair Gerd Leonard. In his book he has formulated eight trends.

1. Music Like Water: Music is no longer a product but a service. Music became a product with the advent of recording (records, tapes, CDs) and the formation of an industry that quickly fig­ured out that selling the bottle can make a lot more money than only selling the wine. For the future, think of a “record label” as a “music utility company.”

2. A Bigger Pie, but Cheaper Slices: Today’s music pricing schemes will be completely eroded by digital music services (legal and, mostly, otherwise) and by stiff competition from other entertainment products. A “liquid” pricing system will emerge, involving subscriptions, bundles of various content types, multi-channel/multi-access charges, and countless add­ed-value services.

3. Diverse and Ubiquitous: A wide range of music will be eve­rywhere, and music will be part of everything that used to be “images only”: from rich media advertising to interactive slide­shows to car software to MMS and digital cameras, to advertis­ing in magazines (!), the audiovisual use of music will soar, and the licensing revenues will explode along with it.

4. Access to Music will Replace Ownership: Soon, consumers will have access to “their” music anytime, anywhere, and the physical possession of it will in fact be more of a handicap, or a knack of collectors. Music will feel (and act) like water.

5. Multi-point Access to Music will be the Default Environ­ment, allowing consumers to fill up their music devices at air­ports, train stations, and in coffee shops and bars, using all kinds of wireless connections as well as other on-demand and ad-hoc networking technologies.

6. Go Direct: Major artists will increasingly rely on their own “brandability” and – via their managers – go direct to the con­sumers, using their own in-house marketing, branding, and promotion teams.

7. The Software Pro: The (performing) rights organizations (PROs) as we know them will likely fade away. Complete tech­nology solutions comprised of watermarking and fingerprint­ing, so-called DRM and (better) CRM components, monitor­ing, admin/accounting, and instant payment solutions will do the job quicker, cheaper, and, of course, with complete trans­parency.

8. Mobile Mania: Cell phones and other wireless devices will eventually utilize and suck up more “content” than any Inter­net service or P2P client ever has. Real-music ringtone offer­ings, Multi-Media SMS (MMS), Java-based games, wireless streaming audio and video, i-Mode type applications, and other cell-phone based offerings will proliferate very quickly, at first in Europe and Asia, followed by the U.S.

What wrong with his predictions?

His vision is based on the fact that we are able to digitize something (music) and transport this something through a pipeline (a broadband network) and re-digitize it with a specialized device.

The first thing that is special in his vision is that there is really nothing that relates to Music.

It is applicable to Anything that is Digitizable. Let’s call them Dthings. Dthings are the Inputs for our Senses. The Dthing-model is a highly used model. It supposes that the Human Being is a Computer (or perhaps better a Robot).

What everybody forgets are aspects of Human Beings like Emotions, Imagination and Context. These aspects have to be balanced. Emotions (or Mood, Taste) play a special role in Music. Music triggers the Emotional part of the Human. The emotions are highly context-dependent. Classical Music in a Beat Environment doesn’t fit.

Music is not confined to the Ears. The whole body is capable of listening. An Ear-plug gives only a part of the sensation music can give you.

Does an extended model of the Human Being prohibit something in the Vision of Gerd Leonard?

Yes and No.

It must be possible to expand the Devices into a complete Music-environment (A Digital Theatre). Digital Theatres are already on the market. It will only block his 8th part of his vision, Mobile Mania.

Digital Theatres are unable to replace a Real Performance of an Artist. In a real performance not only the music, the musicians and the environment but also the public plays an important role. The right combination of all of them generates Spirit (Enthusiasm). The need to experience the “real thing” will rise when “Music as Water” will be available.

The next thing that will cause a lot of trouble is Indexing. It will be impossible to categorize all the Dthings in the Musical Jukebox Leonard will create. Even worse, indexing will start the “Google-effect”. Artist (or their representing companies) will have to pay to get attention.

Is there something “on the market” that will replace “Music like Water”?

Yes.

Let’s call it “Instant Mood”.

Many people take drugs (Alcohol, Pills) to enhance the Experience of Music.

The connection between the device and the body will be improved. In the end there will be a direct connection between the brain and the outside. People will take a simple neural plug-in that will connect them to a Mood-Simulator.

If people want to Get into a Mood why will they need Music if the connector is able to generate every mood they want?

This development is called Mind Control and Mind Control is “On Its Way”. It is already used in the Army and it will find its way into business soon.

Many problems I have mentioned are gone. We don’t need Artists anymore. The Amount of Choice will reduce dramatically so a Classification System is not needed.

Instant Mood will really Flow like the Waves of Emotion.

There is only one little problem.

Mind Control can be used to manipulate Every Body into Every State. So if Instant Mood is operational we have to Prevent this to Happen.

Imagine.

Every body will be Happy all the Time.

We are finally in Paradise.

The Wordwide Carnival: A Short Introduction into the World of Mikhail Bakhtin

Sunday, September 2nd, 2007

The work of Bakhtin was disclosed to me by Will McWhinney. He used Bahktin in one of the many versions of his never published book Grammars of Engagement.

The discovery of Bahktin started with a book about Bahktin by Saul Morson & Caryl Emerson. Later I also read many other books and articles like “The dialogical imagination”, “Towards a philosophy of the act”, “Discourse in the Novel”, “Rabelais and His World”, “Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics” and “Speech Genres and Other Late Essays”.

Bahktin invented the term Chronotope, “The place where the knots of narrative are tied” or “the intrinsic connectedness of temporal and spatial relationships that are artistically expressed in literature“.

A Chronotope is a Topological Concept

knotSpace (Place) and Time (the narrative) are connected by a Knot. A knot is a complicated twist in a rope. The twist is needed when you want to close a system in itself. The simplest topological structure that visualizes twisted space/time is the Moebius Ring.

The Chronotope is the Centre out of which every narrative that we are able to tell is enfolding and unfolding. It produces narratives and absorbs narratives. Bahktin places Folk-Lore, Myth, the Language of the People, in the Centre.

Every narrative contains a twist, a moment where the expansion of the beginning turns to the contraction of the end. It is the moment where the narrative is balanced. The reader holds his breath. It is also the moment where the narrative is aware of itself. It observes the whole.

Sometimes the twist is in the end. You know “who done it”. Sometimes the narrative starts with the twist. There are even narratives without a twist. You know all the time what will happen.

Scientists don’t realize that a scientific article is also a narrative. They use citation to prove they are telling a true story. Funny enough scientific citation has created the Internet. A hypertext is nothing but a citation-structure.

Old narratives produce new narratives. This is always accomplished by Citation. “The word in language is half someone else’s. It becomes “one’s own” only when the speaker populates it with his own intention, his own accent, when he appropriates the word, adapting it to his own semantic and expressive intention. Prior to this moment of appropriation, the word does not exist in a neutral and impersonal language. . . but rather it exists in other people’s mouths, in other people’s contexts, serving other people’s intentions: it is from there that one must take the word, and make it one’s own“”. The cursive sentence between brackets is a citation of Bahktin.

New narratives also oppose old narratives. They are Dialogic. “The entire life of language, in any area of its use . . . is permeated with dialogic relationships“.

Dialogues are converging (Socratic dialogue), diverging and conflicting (Menippian Dialogue) or one sided (the Magisterial Monologue). “Thus at any given moment of its historical existence, language is heteroglot from top to bottom: it represents the co-existence of socio-ideological contradictions between the present and the past, between differing epochs of the past, between different socio-ideological groups in the present, between tendencies, schools, circles and so forth

The Centre generates new narratives all the time. They are a mix of the old and the new. The centre is the Centrifugal Force and this force is powered by Contradiction.

Roller_CoasterThe Institutions, the Ruling Power, are constantly trying to standardize (the Centripetal force). They formulate rules and try to transform the dialogue into a monologue.

The centripetal and the centrifugal force create a huge tension. This tension moves the Wheel of Creation. The wheel always moves through the stages of Order and Chaos. In the middle of the Tornado of Creation is the Centre, the Chronotope. In the centre you will always find rest and inspiration.

The monologue (the magisterial dialogue) is the dialogue of the Magister, the scientist, the manager, the judge, the physician and the teacher. They use science, the law, books or other Magisters to enforce their power. By formulating rules they try to destroy the creative centre (the context).

A context is potentially unfinalized; a code must be finalized. A code is only a technical means of transmitting information; it does not have cognitive, creative significance. Code is deliberately killed context“.

At this moment the Centripetal force is implemented in the Search Engine. Narratives are found by typing codes. This makes it very difficult to find a context. Companies like Google are manipulating the coding. They are paid by the Centripetal Force of the Commercial Companies.

The centrifugal force is never at rest. It always generates new alternatives. The creation of new literature is not bounded by rules. Every time a new structure is defined the Centre starts to play with the rules and generates a new combination. The Centre is not only combining rules it even invents new rules. The Centre is the inventor of new Games to Play.

Producing literature is a process of spiralling out. It follows a cycle but at a certain point in time a new Centre appears and the Cycle starts a new process of Folk-lore. The new centre is always connected to the old Centre. New myths and new fairy tales are created that are a representation of the Spirit of the Time.

Every cycle is governed by a Clock. The periodicity of the Clocks is determinated by the number five. It runs at a frequency of 1250, 250, 50, 10 or 2 years. There are frequencies that are moving faster (the Atom) and much slower (the Universe).

I will tell the Tale of Bahktin on the level of the Cycle of Culture (1250 years, 250 years per stage).

HunsBetween 450 and 700 the Roman Empire is destroyed by the Huns. It is the time of the Great Deportations. People out of Asia move to the West. They are the ancestors of the Ostrogotes, the Visigotes, the Franks, the Gauls, the Germans and the Celts. 1250 years later they are integrated in what we now call Europe. Between 700 and 2000 the Europeans explore and conquer the World.

Around 1200 the new powers have created many Kingdoms and have organized the Crusades to conquer the Holy Land. To show their power they build the Cathedrals. The Cathedrals are the instrument of the Education of the Masses. The old folk-lore is transformed to the new of the Christian Faith. The old-folklore is not destroyed. Many symbols and important events are preserved. They are cited. The transition of the Sun in Winter is transformed in Christmas. The new apostles are connected to the old animals of the old Wheel of Fortune.

Tristan IsoldeBetween 1200 and 1450 the Chronotope of the Greek Romance (Tristan and Isolde, Arthur and The Grail) appears. It is the Chronotope of Being and Destiny. “There are a lot of suddenly’s”. Everything happens. The actor in this Chronotope is without identity. He is tested by destiny. When he has passed the test he is not changed. There is no time and space. Time (“adventure-time”) is reversible. The actors are public figures and space is public space. In the narratives we are able to see and hear everything.

We are in the Middle Ages. In the outside world destiny is also playing its evil game. Western Civilization is almost destroyed by the plague, feminine and wars between the Kingdoms. Even the Christian Empire of Rome is divided by a schism (Byzantium). At the end only a few Kingdoms survive. These Kings become Emperors. They represent God on Earth.

copernicusThis (1450-1700) is the time of the Chronotope of the Adventure. It is the Chronotope of Becoming. The identity of the actor is transforming. He is responsible for his own actions. Life is full of turning points (twists). The actor wants to take control of the outside world. Space becomes “private space”.

To give the reader insight in what is happening the Observer is introduced. He is a voyeur, a prostitute, a rambler, a rover, a tramp, a spy, a servant or an animal. The observer is not influencing the story at all. He is just watching. Objectivity is also introduced in space (court).

In the outside world we are in the Time of Renaissance (the Era of Discovery). It is the time of new inventions in Science (Copernicus), Art (Leonard Da Vinci) and Religion (Reformation, Luther, Calvin). The Bible is translated in the language of the people. It is also the time of the Great Explorations (Columbus) of the world outside the West. Western Culture starts his quest to control Nature and eventually the World.

munchThe next Chronotope is the Biography (1700-1950), the praise of a public figure who has accomplished something in life. We are moving from the outside world to the inside world of the actor.

Inner space is closed. “This offers a new relationship to one’s own self, one’s own particular “I”- with no witnesses, without any concessions to the voice of a “third person“.

Outside events affect the inner world. The actor is not showing this. In the outside world the actor is judged by his actions and not by his inner space (his essence). “The essence of man is realized not by his condition but by his activity“.

To give the reader a view on the inner space the outsider is introduced. His outside actions are governed by a distorted inner space. The outsider (the fool, the eccentric) acts as a reference.

The actor is a pretender. He is constantly in doubt, grumbling, cynical and sarcastic. He is also passive. He is watching from a distance. Everything is Relative (Bahktin was a fan of Einstein). The only time when the actor is able to show himself is at the carnival. During this short period he is allowed to choose his own mask.

This the time of the Industrial Revolution. It is the era of mechanization. It starts with the invention of the Mill and the Factory. It ends with the mechanized Consumer watching Television.

star warsStarting in 1950 we are again in the phase of Folk-lore. Western Civilization is moving to a new Centre, Earth.

New myths and legends will be created. They have to be based on all the tales, myths and legends that are available on Earth. Some of them will be a citation. Others will be an opposition.

All kinds of dialogues will take and have to take place. We will experience many conflicts (Mennipian Dialogue). We will also have to listen and ask questions to understand the other cultures (Socratic Dialogue). We have to stop our Western Magisterial Monologue.

In the beginning it will be a Heteroglossia (a many voicedness), a very complicated Knot we have to untie. When we have found the tread we will be able to weave a new web of narratives that will start the phase of the Greek Romance again.

Between now and 2100 “We must make the new by our own effort”.“We have to face problems of reality and human potential, problems of freedom and necessity, and the problem of creative initiative“. We have to become persons “who emerge along with the world and reflect the historical emergence of the world itself”.

In order to understand, it is immensely important for the person who understands to be located outside the object of his or her creative understanding — in time, in space, in culture. . . . Our real exterior can be seen and understood only by other people, because they are located outside us in space and because they are others

We have to write our own Novel. “There is no causality in novels, no genesis, no explanations based on the past, on the influences of the environment or of upbringing and so forth. Every act a character commits is in the present, and in this sense is not predetermined”.

We have to act without hesitation and leave history behind. There is no experience we can reuse. The future is unfinalized (open).

The Magisters are not able to tell us what to do. They are out of tricks. We have to put off our own masks and take responsibility for what we are doing. “There is no alibi for being”. We have to stop pretending and use citations of others to prove we are right.

carnival of fools

We are now part of the Worldwide Carnival of Fools. Choose your mask out of the many masks that are available all over the world. Listen to the stories of other cultures and be surprised about the beauty and the experience they are containing. Give the Fools and the Eccentrics, the Outsiders, a chance to help you.

Laugh.

It will be fun.

I want to close with a citation of Paul Feyerabend (Killing Time (1995)): “People, intellectuals especially, seem unable to be content with a little more freedom, a little more happiness, a little more light. Perceiving a small advantage, they seize it, circumscribe it, nail it down, and in this way prepare a New Age of ignorance, darkness and slavery. It is rather surprising that there are still people who want to help others for personal reasons, because they are kindhearted and because they have not been intimidated by principles. It is even more surprising that some of the people can work in institutions despite the greed, the incompetence, the power struggles that seem to surround the noblest cause.”

Do you want to know more about Feyerabend read The Act of Creation: About Fusion and Con-fusion

LINKS

About the Cathedrals

About the Fool in African Myths

About Fools, Pyramids and Bubbles

Why Fools always Lose

About Very Long Cycles

About the Cycle of Culture