Posts Tagged ‘Albrecht Durer’

About Perspective

Thursday, February 2nd, 2012
File:Reconstruction of the temple of Jerusalem.jpg

Medieval Perspective

Introduction

When we Look with our Eyes and not with our Mind we can See that Space looks very different from what we Think it is. In Our Space Parallel Lines meet at Infinity.

Around 1400 during the Renaissance Painters started to look at Space with their own Eyes and discovered the Rules of Perspective Drawing.

Between 1600-1800 Perspective Theory changed from a Theory of Art to a Theory of Mathematics called Projective Geometry.

It took 400 Years before a few Mathematicians realized that Projective Geometry was the Foundation of Mathematics and it took another 100 years before Projective Geometry started to influence Physics.

In 1908 Hermann Minkowski discovered that Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity could be analysed using Projective Geometry. Minkowski created a 4D Space-Time Metric Geometry in which he added one Time Dimension.

Many experiments now show that 4D-Space-Time  is not sufficient to incorporate what Time Really is.

The essence of Our Universe is Movement, Expanding Space,  and Movement = Space/Time (Space Divided By Time).

Both Time and Space are 3-Dimensional and represent a Different,  Reciprocal, Complementary (Dual), View on Movement.

We can move independently in Time OR Space and in Time AND Space (The Chronotope).

The Future is Expanding Space with Infinite Potential.

Time moves behind Space and Scales Space.

About Perspective Drawing

A Mathematical Theory of Perspective Drawing could only be developed when the Renaissance freed painters to depict Nature in a way closer to what they Observed.

In the Middle Ages Social Status was very important. Important People or Buildings were always emphasized.

In the Renaissance the Artists started to look with their own Eyes and Created Pictures where the Viewer looked through the Eyes of the Painter.

The Florentine architect Filippo Brunelleschi (1337-1446) studied Greek Geometry, developed a theory of perspective and undertook painting just to apply his geometry.

The first treatise, Della pittura (1435) by Leone Battista Alberti (1404-72) furnished most of the rules.

Alberti regarded mathematics as the common ground of Art and the Sciences. “To make clear my exposition in writing this brief commentary on painting,” Alberti began his treatise Della pittura, “I will take first from the mathematicians those things which my subject is concerned”.

Alberti stressed that “all steps of learning should be sought from nature“. The ultimate aim of an artist is to imitate nature.

Perspective Machine designed by Albrecht Durer

Alberti did not mean that artists should imitate nature objectively, as it is, but the artist should be especially attentive to beauty, “for in painting beauty is as pleasing as it is necessary“.

The work of art is according to Alberti so constructed that it is impossible to take anything away from it or add anything to it, without impairing the beauty of the whole.

Beauty was for Alberti “the harmony of all parts in relation to one another,” and subsequently “this concord is realized in a particular number, proportion, and arrangement demanded by harmony“.

Alberti’s thoughts on harmony were not new – they could be traced back to Pythagoras – but he set them in a fresh context, which well fit in with the contemporary Aesthetic Discourse.

IMAGE: Leonardo's perspectograph

The Perspectograph of Leonardo Da Vinci

One of the earliest Artists to produce a book on how to draw in perspective was Albrecht Dürer. As well as discussing geometric methods, he also illustrated his book with a set of woodcuts showing practical tools for accurate perspective drawing. Other Artists like Leonardo Da Vinci developed comparable tools.

About Projective Geometry

Projective Geometry formalizes one of the Central Principles of Perspective Drawing and of Human Perception: Parallel Lines Meet at Infinity.

In Euclidean geometry, constructions are made with Ruler (Line) and Compass (Circle). Projective Geometry only require a Ruler.

In Projective Geometry one Never Measures Any Thing, instead, one Relates one Set of Points to another by a Line.

Two projections of the same object.

Different Points of View

Alberti was the first to ask what two pictures have in common if two drawing screens are interposed between the viewer and the object, and the object is projected onto both resulting in two different pictures of the same scene.

The basic idea behind Linear Perspective is simple: in every painting an artist creates a “floor” or area of the painting where the figures and/or objects will be placed. The floor ends at a horizon line, and the horizon line has a Vanishing Point or Point of Convergence on it.

The artist then draws parallel lines radiating from the vanishing point outward. Images closest to the vanishing point should appear smaller and closer together, and images farthest from the vanishing point should appear larger and farther apart, giving the impression of depth and space in the painting.

Pappus of Alexandria ( 290 – 350), one of the last great Greek mathematicians of Antiquity, proved that that given one set of points A, B, C on a line, and another set of points a, b, c on another line, then the intersection points X, Y, Z of line pairs Ab and aB, Ac and aC, Bc and bC are also on a Line. This line originates at the Vanishing Point.

Pappus' Theorem

Later Desargues (1591-1661) proved Pappus Theorem for Triangels. He proved that the three vertices of one triangle a, b, and c, and those of the other A, B, and C meet in a third point, and that these three points all lie on a common line called the Axis of Perspectivity.

Desargues' theorem

Later Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) proved Pappus Theorem for Conics (Circles, Parabola, Hyperbola) in his  ”Essay on Conics” (1640) when he was 16 years of Age.

Pascals Theorem

About the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio

Finally 400 years later in 1803 Lazare Carnot found the answer to the Question of Leone Battista Alberti.

In his book “Géométrie de Position” he proved that the so called “Cross-Ratio” is always preserved in a Projection with One Point of View.

The Cross-Ratio

The Cross-Ratio is the Ratio of the Ratio of the Four Points A,B,C,D lying on a Line that intersects the Four Lines defined by a,b,c,d that orginate at the Vanishing Point O.  Carnot  proved that (AB)(CD)/(AC)(BD) = (A′B′)(C′D′)/(A′C′)(B′D′).

The Cross Ratio is not only the Cross-Ratio of the Four Points A,B,C,D. It is also the Cross-Ratio of the Four Lines  and the Three Angles that originate out of the Vanishing Point. In this case (AB)(CD)/(AC)(BD)=Sin(AB) x Sin(CD)/Sin (AC) x Sin (BD).

This principle is called Duality. In 2D-Projective Geometry Connected Points and Lines, called an Incidence, are interchangeable.

There is a corresponding Duality in three-dimensional Projective Geometry between Points and Planes. Here, the line is its own Duality, because it is determined by either two points or two planes.

ratios.jpg

The Cross-Ratio k is dependent on the Order of the Four Points. It converges to 0 and infinity when k=1 and to -1/2 and 2 when k= -1.

Two examples: 2D: Two distinct Points determine a unique Line and two distinct Lines determine a unique Point. 3-D:  Three distinct Points not all on the same Line determine a unique Plane and three distinct Planes not all containing the same Line determine (meet in) a unique Point.

The 24 Permutations of A,B,C and D produce 6 possible values of the Cross-Ratio, depending on the order in which the points are given. If k = 1, the other Cross-Ratio’s are 0 and infinity. This happens when point A = point D. In this case the Geometric Entity is an Equilateral Triangle.

If k = -1, the other Cross-Ratio’s are -1/2 and 2. This is called a Harmonic Cross-Ratio. This happens when the Internal Ratio of AC determinated by B is Equal to the External Ratio of AC determinated by D. When k=-1/2 and 2 the Geometric Entity is a Square.

If the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio are on a Line or a Circle, then the Cross Ratio is a Real Number, otherwise the Cross-Ratio is a Complex Number.

Ruler (Space) and Compass (Time): The Tools of the Geometer

About the Four Layers of Geometry and the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio

In 1872 Felix Klein, published a new Mathematical Research Program called the Erlangen Program under the title Vergleichende Betrachtungen über neuere geometrische Forschungen.

In this program Projective Geometry was emphasized as the Unifying Frame for all other Geometries.

Although lines in the Projective Plane meet in one point of Infinity Klein argued that there could be two points of Infinity if the Projective Plane was a Surface Closed in Itself.

When we look at the Origin of Projective Geometry, the Artist painting A Sphere, Earth, on a Flat Surface, it is not difficult to realize that this Closed Surface is a Sphere.

.

Geometry is now divided into Four  Layers. Each Layer adds a set of Assumptions that creates certain Invariants for that Layer.

An invariant is a property of a configuration of Geometric Entities that is not altered by any transformation belonging to the specific layer.

A transformation is an operation applied to a Geometric Entity. The most common transformations are Translation, Rotation and their Combinations (Reflection).

What we will see is that the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio are highly related to the Four Layers. In Every Higher Layer One Point of the Cross-Ratio is moved to the Internal Landscape, the Mind, of the Observer. This principle is called “As Within so Without“.

The First and most fundamental Layer is the Layer of Projective Geometry. This is the Layer of Human Perception and is invariant under the Cross-Ratio also called a Moebius Transformation.

The Second Layer is called Affine Geometry. In this layer Parallel Lines are preserved and the Assumption of a Plane at Infinity, the Horizon,  is created.  This Plane generates Parallel and Orthogonal Relationships between Geometric Entities by placing One of the Four Points of the Cross-Ratio in the Plane at Infinity.

Affine Geometry is Euclidean Geometry with congruence (something is the same when Shape and Size are the Same) and a metric (a definition of a Distance) left out. An affine transformation preserves straight lines and ratios of distances between points lying on a straight line.

This the layer of  the Emotions, “the harmony of all parts in affinity to one another” of  Leone Batista Alberti.  In Affine Geometry the Frame of Reference of the Painter, the Floor,  is created. On this Floor,  the Horizon, the Plane at Infinity is drawn.  From the Point of View of the Observer, it is not possible  to Judge Distance or the-Sameness because a given Visual Object may be Large and Far away or Small and Close.

In Eucludian Geometry A Ruler contains a Fixed Scale

The Third Layer, Metric Geometry, adds the concept of Distance (Metric, Scale) to the Affine Layer. A Distance is a relation between Two Points of the Cross-Ratio. This is the Layer of the Painter, Creator, Observer, who creates his own Distance to the Distances he is Painting in the External Frame he is looking at.

Since Projective Space is the Space of Actual Perception, the true function of Metric Space is the Coordination of Various Perspectives. This is illustrated in Perspective Drawing, in which there are always Two Perspectives being Coordinated—the Vanishing Point and a Point just behind the Eyes of the Observer.  Each of these is an instance of the One Point at Infinity.

alchemy

The Expectation looks through a Small Hole.

The last, Fourth,  Layer is the layer of Euclidian Geometry. In Euclidean Geometry Distance is Fixed (not Relative) and Scaled to a Unity (Meters). This leaves us with just One Point of the Cross-Ratio, the Unity, the One.

Between  1926 and  his death in 1983 Alfred Tarski worked on the Axiomatization of Euclidean Geometry. In Tarski’s system there is only one type of Object: the One, The Point.

There are just two Geometrical notions between Points: the Ternary Relation of “in-Betweenness” and the Quaternary Relation of “Equidistance” or Congruence.  Betweenness captures the Affine aspect of Euclidean Geometry; Equidistance/Congruence, its Metric aspect.

This is the Layer of the Human Expectation who has not Distanced Itself and is Looking Outside Through a Small Hole at the Future. The Expectation considers the Future as an Extension of the Past (Memory).

In Euclidian Geometry we have to Move Outside to the Objects to Measure their Distance and the Sameness with a Pre-Defined Unity.

If we don’t move to the Object we will measure an Illusion.

About Space measured by Time and Space measured by Space

The Ancient Sumerians  knew that the Length of one side of a Hexagon is the same length as is the Radius of the Circle that circumscribes this Hexagon (See Pascals Theorem).

They also knew that the Stars of the Constellations of the Zodiac shift Counterclockwise, at the rate of 72 years/degree, because of the Precession of the Earth’s axis. One Wobble takes 25.920 years.

The length of one side of the Earth Hexagon is therefore the Distance traveled by the Constellations of the Zodiac along the horizon during 25.920/6=4,320 years.

They then subdivided this distance by 7,200  which produced the Royal Mile that was subdivided into 1,760 Royal Cubits.

Before 3.117 BC the complete Earth was covered with a uniform Geodesic System that was based on the Rotation and Precession of the Constellations of the Zodiac. This System was implemented in the Megaliths.

At that Time Space was measured by Time.

The Physical System of the Megaliths was destroyed by the Great Flood of 3.117 BC but the Metric System survived thousands of years until the French Revolution.

On the 8th of May, 1790, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand at the end of the French Revolution, proposed before the National Assembly in Paris a Change to a Decimal Measurement System.

The Academy of Science recommended that the new definition for a Meter be equal to 1/10,000,000 of the distance between the North Pole and the Equator, and this was accepted by the National Assembly in 1791.

From that Time on Space was measured by Space.

Why the Future contains Infinite Possibilities

A Painter or a Human always looks Forwards in Space. If there are Parallel Lines visible they all Converge to a Vanishing Point at The  Horizon. The Horizon is a Parallel Line at Infinity.

We all know that the Parallel Line of the Horizon is caused by the fact that the Earth is a Moving Sphere. This Moving Sphere moves around other Spheres that move around other Spheres.

The Rotation of the Spheres in Space is used as a Clock. Every time when the Cycle of the Spheres repeats itself we add one unit to a standard Time-Measure. One Sun Cycle is named a Year. One Cycle of the Precession takes 25,920 Years.

We Measure our Time by the Cyclic Movement of Objects in Space. The Cyclic Movements caused by the Rotations of Objects around Objects (around Objects) is really a Rotating Rotating Rotation, a Spiraling Spiral.

We don’t live in the Sphere but we live and Move on the Surface of a  Moving Sphere. That is why our Geometry is an Elliptic Geometry (or Projective Geometry).

Euclides and Pythagoras were aware of Projective Geometry (See also Pappus) but the Scientists of the Enlightenmentstarted to interpret their Theory with a Different Eye. They saw Numbers in a completely different way the Greek did.

The Scientist disconnected Number from Magnitude (Form) and created an Abstract Static Number Theory and an Abstract  Static Theory of Physics. The Movement of our Universe, the Ether, came to a stilstand.

The Theory of Perspective Drawing, based on our Real Perception of Reality, is the same theory that generated Projective Geometry. We are now back to Normal again.

In the blog about Geometric Algebra I wrote about a very Independent Thinker called Dewey B. Larson.

He reinvented Physics and Projective Geometry in his own way, Calculated all the well known Physical Constants and based his Theory on a simple well know Assumption that Space and Time are Reciprocal (A Ratio of Ratio’s , the Cross-Ratio) because Velocity= dS(pace)/dT(ime).

Moving Movement is the Essence of our Reality.

What Larson calls “Motion” is the Ether Wind (or the Higgs Field) the Velocity which was measured in the North-South (Z) direction at 208 km/s in 1933 by Dayton C. Miller.

Einstein believed the results of the Michelson-Morley Experiments in 1887 that “proved” that the Moving Ether was non-existent. Now we know that the experiments were wrong.  Einstein also did not believe that Space was Expanding. At this moment the Expanding Universe is confirmed by many observations.

When Space Expands,  Time Compresses and fills up the Space to Keep Balance. Time Scales Space.

Space moves to Infinity. Time Moves to the Inverse of Infinity, Zero. Space is measured by the Linear Visible Scalar Number-System. Time is Measured with the Rotational Invisible Imaginary Number System.

Expanding Space is Linear Motion. Time is the Spiraling Motion of the Vortex.

golden mean spiral2

The Spiraling Spiral of Time

Space is Yang and Time is Yin. Yin is feminine, Curved, Rotational, smooth or cold. Yang is masculine, Straight, Linear, rough or hot.

Space and Time are Complementary Duals that Move Around the Void.

If we look at the Human Perspective we now are able to understand what Time and Space Really are.

When we Look Forward we Experience Space. Time is always Behind our Back.

Human Senses and Conventional, Scientific Equipment can only Look Forward and therefore Measure Space (Distance) and the Change of Space (Velocity, Acceleration).

This is a Limitation of our Physical Sensory System, which evolved to measure Space, Scaled by Time, to produce what we Perceive as Causality–a Linear Ordering of Events.

Without the Cause-and-Effect System, the Sensory World of Space would just become Chaos.

Time, History, is Always Behind Us and Space, The Future, The Adjacent Possible, with Infinite Possibilities, is Always in Front of Us.

Let’s Move.

LINKS

About Pythagoras and Heliopolis (Egypt)

About Pythagoras

Paul Dirac: About Physics and Projective Geometry

About the Middle Ages

About Expanding Space and Not-Euclidian Geometry

About the Renaissance

About Resistance and Mass

About the Mathematics of Perspective

About the Ether

About Clean Space

About Projective Geometry

Pictures of the Projective Plane

About Geometric Algebra

About As Within, So Without

About the Reciprocal Theory of Dewey B. Larson

A Video about Mobius Transformations

About Projective Geometry and our Senses

About Projective Geometry and Geometric Algebra

About the Cube of Space

About Time and Paranormal Experiences

About Geometry

A Textbook about Metric Geometry

About the Four Points of View

About the Void

Why the Future is Open Space

About Alchemy and the Klein Bottle

About the Human Sensory System

Stuart Kaufmann: About the Adjacent Possible

About Plato and Harmony

Monday, January 5th, 2009
SriYantra

Sri Yantra

The teachings of Ancient Civilizations are often Self-Referential.

The same knowledge is showed on many levels.

What we see with our Senses is an Illusion. Behind this Illusion lies a deeper structure.

The last and deepest level of the ancient teachings is always related to Numbers, Geometry and the Trinity.

This blog is about one of the most important geometric structures of the Trinity called the Sri Yantra.

In the ancient teachings a problem is defined and the teacher gives a clue how to solve the problem.

If the pupil has solved a problem he is able to move to a deeper level.

The whole idea is that real knowledge, wisdom, is only discovered, when the pupil has solved the puzzle of life him- or herself.

Let’s have a look at a Deeper Level.

A deep level is related to a number called Phi. Phi is called the Golden Ratio or the Divine Proportion. It is the real solution of the quadratic equation x**2-x-1.

It is also a solution of the proportion a:b=b:a+b, the sequence of Fibonacci x(n+2)= x(n+1) + x(n), the geometric structure of the Pentagram, the Fifth Element (the Quintessence, the Ether) and the Logarithmic (Golden)Spiral.

Phi is the pattern behind the Egyptian Pyramids, the Stock Market, Harmony in Music and Architecture and many other fields of science including Physics.

Let us first have a look at the way the old teachers have hidden the knowledge of the Divine Proportion in their teachings.

plato

Plato

A beautiful example is Plato.

Plato was an initiate of the Mathematikoi, the Secret Society of Pythagoras. Pythagoras was initiated in the Secrets Societies of Egypt.

What do you think of this problem-statement:

What are the most perfect bodies that can be constructed, four in number, unlike one another, but such that some can be generated out of one another by resolution? … If we can hit upon the answer to this, we have the truth concerning the generation of earth and fire and of the bodies that stand as proportionals between them (Timaeus 53e)”

and

Two things cannot be rightly put together without a Third; there must be some bond of union between them. …and the fairest bond is that which makes the most complete fusion of itself and the things which it combines, and proportion (analogia) is best adapted to effect such a union”.

and

“For whenever in any three numbers, whether cube or square, there is a mean, which is to the last term what the first term is to it, and again, when the mean is to the first term as the last term is to the mean – then the mean becoming first and last, and the first and last both becoming means, they will all of them of necessity come to be the same, and having become the same with one another will be all one [Timaeus 31b-32a]“.

In the last citation Plato is formulating a mathematical problem related to the four bodys A,B,C,D with the three proportions A:B = C:D = (A+B) : (C+D) = (C+D) : (A+B+C+D). This problem is unsolvable if you don’t have a clue where to start.

This problem is solved when you realize that the Divine Proportion has many strange relationships that are very useful to solve the puzzle.

These relationships can be found if you know everything there is to know about Triangles and Triangles are again related to the Trinity (“Two things cannot be rightly put together without a Third“).

The Trinity comes back in the structure of the Dialogues of Plato. They are divided into Three Parts (and an introduction).

The structure of the dialogues relates to itself.

movmetatronThe knowledge of the self-reference of the Dialogues is also a clue to solve more complicated puzzles about the Dialogues themselves.

Just like the famous book of Hofstadter (Goedel, Escher, Bach) the dialogues show a new layer everytime they are read with a new aquired Insight.

The dialogues of Plato are organized according to the model he wants to teach. There are seven layers (-1,-2,-3,0,1,2,3) related to the Seven Mirror-Universes (or Hells and Heavens) of Our Universe (Eight, the Whole) in our Multi-Universe.

The Seven is a combination of Two Trinities with the Zero (The Void) in the middle. The Eight (2**3) State is the Dialog, The Whole, itself.

The Seven layers are divided into Three Sections (the Trinity) so the total amount of clues is 7×3= 21 + 1 (the Whole) = 22.

22 divided by 7 is an approximation of the number π (Pi).

Pi relates the Square to the Circle.

The Square represents the Playing Board of the Universe. On this Board we, the Humans, play our Game of Free Will.

Our Free Will is an Illusion. We are controlled by the Matrix.

The Circle represents the Wheel of Fortune, the Matrix, that Governs the Seven Universes in our Multi-Universe and the Game of Life.

What is Plato Trying to Explain?

golden ratio

The Golden Ratio

The Divine proportion is the basic concept behind Harmony.

The Divine Proportion is Not Symmetrical so Harmony is not related to Balance.

If everything would be balanced the Universe was never created.

Harmony is Balanced Unbalance.

An Architecture is beautiful when there is a slight unbalance in the Design.

This Unbalance shows the Sign of the Creator.

The Universe is created out of an Unbalance between Two Forces, the Positive and the Negative, the Good and the Bad.

The Two forces (-1,0,1) are divided into Four Forces (-2,-1,0,1,2) with the One in the Middle (Five) and are expanded into Seven Levels (-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3). The Four Forces are “the most perfect bodies that can be constructed, four in number“.

The Seven Levels are related to the Circle. The Four Forces are related to the Square. The Universe oscillates between The Square and The Circle.

When the Square, the Game We Play with the Four Forces and the Circle (The Five Fold Cycle, Our Destiny) are in Balance the Human is in the Tao and Magic happens.

Every division is a split of the Trinity into Trinities until a state of Balance is reached. At that time the process reverses.

mt meru

Mount Meru

The unbalance of the Good (+1) and the Bad (-1) is an Illusion. They Cooperate to Create Harmony (0).

Behind the perceived Unbalance is a balancing principle, the Divine Proportion. This principle brings everything Back into the Balance of the One who is the Void (0).

What we don’t know is to be known if we understand the progression of the Divine Spiral.

The Future, the Third Step, is a Combination of Two Steps in the Past (The Fibonacci Sequence), nothing more.

Is there a Deeper Structure Behind the Divine Proportion?

golden mean spiral2

Golden Mean Spiral

The Four Forces (Control, Desire, Emotion(Compassion) and the Whole of the Trinity, Imagination) and the related sacred geometry were a guiding principle for the Imagination and the E-Motivation of many Western Scientists.

They tried to Control the Chaos of the Desires of the Senses by enforcing the Rules of Scientific Falsification.

The Proces of Falsification destroyed the Human Intuition.

The Western Scientists forgot to look at the Source of Intuition, the Center, the Quintessence (The Fifth, Consciousness).

The principle behind the Quintessence (Ether, Chi, Prana) is related to higher order symmetries and is a solution of a generalization of the generating function of the Divine proportion X**2 -X – 1

This generalization is X**2-pX-q or X(n+2) = pX(n+1) + qX(n). The solutions of this formula are called the Metallic Means.

When p=1 and q =1 the Divine proportion comes back again.

When the p=3 and q=1 a new sequence X**2-3X-1 or X(n+2) = 3*X(n+1) + X(n), the Bronze Mean appears.

The Bronze Mean generates the pattern: 1,1,4,13,43, the pattern of the Sri Yantra.

continued fraction golden meanIt shows a very beautiful pattern of “3″s when the Bronze Mean is evaluated in a Continued Fraction. The Golden Mean is a continued fraction of “1″s.

There are many more “Metallic Means” (other p’s and q’s). They are related to all kinds of symmetries and fractal patterns.

The Bronze Mean shows that behind the Trinity of the Golden Mean lies another Trinity (and another Trinity and …).

quasycrystal

Penrose Tiling

The Bronze Mean is the generator of so called QuasiCrystals.

Quasy Crystals play a very important role in the Electro Magnetic Structures of our Body, the Collagens.  Collagens are the most abundant protein in mammals,making up about 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. The Collagens in our body explain the Ancient Chinese Science of Acupuncture.

Quasi Crystals are “normal” Crystals with a very complex symmetry.

They are ordered AND not-ordered.

One of the most beautiful examples of the patterns behind Quasi Crystals are the Penrose Tilings.

They were developed by the famous physicist Roger Penrose. He used the tilings to show his insights about consciousness.

Penrose believes that Our Universe is just like our Body a Quasi Crystal, a Hall of Mirrors. We the Souls travel all the Paths of this Magnificent Fluent Crystal.

Was the Bronze Mean Known by the Ancient Architects?

lalita

Tripura

The most important implementation of the Bronze Mean can be seen in the Sri Yantra (“Sacred Device”).

The Sri Yantra is related to the Red Triple Goddess of Creation, Tripura also named Lalita (“She Who Plays“).

The Sri Yantra is generated out of the FiveFold Pattern or Creation and the Four Forces of Destruction.

It contains  9 interlocking isoceles triangles. 4 of them point upwards and represent the female energy Shakti, while the other 5 point downwards, representing the male energy Shiva.

The standard form of the Sri Yantra  constitutes a total of 43 triangles. The centre of the Yantra has a Bindu which represents the Void.

The FiveFold Pattern of Creation moves with the Clock. A pattern that moves with the clock is a  generating pattern.

It moves away from the void and generates space. The FiveFold Pattern is the pattern of the Universe. It creates Universes, Galaxies and Planets. The Pattern moves around the Cellestial Center of Creation,  the Black Hole.

The FourFold Pattern moves Against the Clock and is a destructing pattern. It dissolves space and moves back to the void.  The FourFold pattern is the pattern of the Human Being and Earth.

The combination of both patterns is a Moebius Ring (the symbol of infinity) with the celestial Centre in the Middle. The FiveFold/Four Fold pattern resembles the Ninefold Egypian Pesedjet and the Ninefold Chinese Lo Shu Magic Square.

From the fivefold Shakti comes creation and from the fourfold Fire dissolution. The sexual union of five Shaktis and four Fires causes the chakra to evolve” (Yogini Hridaya (Heart of the Yogini Tantra)).

In Pakistan the Mother Goddess (Sharika) is represented by a diagram that contains “one central basic point that represents the core of the whole cosmos; 3 circles around it and 4 gates to enter, with 43 triangles shaping the corners“.

The Penrose Tilings and many other quasi crystals can also be found in Ancient Roman, Islamic and Christian Architecture (Pompei, Alhambra, Taj Mahal, Chartres). The tilings are an expression of the Game of Life and were used to build Educational Buildings (Pyramids, Cathedrals,..) to teach and show the old teachings.

kepler_spheres-l

Keplers Model of the Solar System

Kepler (1570-1640), a German Mathematician and Astronomer (The Cosmographic Mystery) and Albrecht Durer (1471-1528), a German Painter, knew about the Penrose Tilings but until the discovery of the Penrose Tilings nobody knew that they knew.

The new scientists (re)discovered old patterns that were known by the old scientist

What is the Meaning of the Bronze Mean?

The Bronze Mean shows the effect of a continuous division of the Universe in Trinities.

It shows that the Universe (and other levels) is suddenly moving from an ordered state to a chaotic state.

This chaotic, not predictable, state is not chaotic at all when you understand the patterns behind chaos.

In our Universe chaos is always ordered. Chaos is an effect of something that is happening in a higher (not Sensible) Dimension or A Higher Consciousness.

m-brane

The Two Brains of Paul Steinhardt

The writer of an important article about Penrose Tilings and Islamic Art, Paul Steinhardt is like Roger Penrose a well known physicist.

He has created a new theory about the Universe based on Four Forces AND the Quintessence.

In this theory the Universe is Cyclic. It is expanding and contracting.

The expansion of the Universe ends when the Two Major Structures (-1,0, 1) in the Universe, called Membranes or Branes, are in Balance with the Center (0, the Void).

The membranes are higher dimensional Squares that are in parallel.

The Braines at both sides split into many similar cell-like structures. We live in one of the Cells of the Universe.

Adam_Kadmon

Adam Kadmon

The Others, our Twins, live on the other membranes and are not aware of our existence until the Brains are getting into Balance.

At that moment the Twin Universes are Connected.

Scientists don’t know when this will happen but the Old Scientists who could travel the Multi-Universe with their United Brains knew.

It would happen at a very special Alignment of the Five Fold Center of Creation of the Milky Way with the FourFold Cross of the Destruction of Earth.

The Bronze mean is the Master-Pattern of our Multi-Universe.

The pattern 1,1,4,13,43 is in its 42nd enfolding and soon we will experience the 43th step, a Merge of the Left and the Right Brain of the Super Conscioussness, Adam Kadmon.

LINKS

About the Divine Trinity Pattern

How to Raise the Djed

About the Nine-Fold Pattern of the Egyptian Pesedjed

Everything you want to know about the Divine Proportion

About The Indefinite Dyad and the Golden Section: Uncovering Plato’s Second Principle

About the Self-Referential Structure of the Dialogues of Plato

About the Law of Three of Gurdjieff

About Sharika, the Mother Goddess

About the Metallic Means

Paul Steinhardt, About Penrose Tilings and Ancient Islamic Art

About Penrose Tilings and the Alhambra

About the Geometric Patterns in Ancient Structures

An interview with Roger Penrose about the relationship between Conscioussness and Tilings

A lot of information (including simulations) about the Cyclic Universe of Paul Steinhardt

A simple model for the formation of a complex organism

How life emerged out of one Quasy Crystal

About Quasy Crystals and Sacred Geometry