Archive for the ‘Ecology’ Category

About Entrainment

Thursday, August 26th, 2010

In 1665 the Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens noticed that two pendulum clocks in his room tended to Swing in Sync. The same happens with fireflies, cardiac pacemaker cells,  menstrual cycles, birds in flight, walking, dancing, circadian rhythms in animals, quantum gravity theory, dialogues and people in a crowd.

Two connected Systems always Entrain because Every System in our Universe Vibrates and is connected.

birds in sync

Birds in Sync

When the Parts are  connected, the Rhythm of the Whole controls the Rhythm of the Parts.

The transformations of the seperate parts takes place in two steps. In the first step the variance of the frequencies of the parts is reduced but the oscillators remain incoherent, each running near its natural frequency, until a certain threshold is crossed. Then the oscillators begin to synchronize spontaneously. The effect is somewhat like the outbreak of synchronous applause after a magnificent concert.

To make the transformation possible the Parts have to adjust their behavior. They have to move with the Rhythm of the Flow of the Central Clock. At the end of the transformation from isolated Parts to the Whole the Parts are the Same. They are Copying each other.

When people are copying other people they lose their identity and move into a trance-state. The same effect can be accomplished with hypnosis.  When people are in a trance-state it is easy to manipulate them.

About Copying

Humans are Copiers. When we look at the Science of Coupled Oscillators it becomes clear that Copying is not an intentional act. People and other Systems are more or less forced to copy others when the frequencies of their systems are within a certain bandwith.

When people are close and are focused on a shared target (a soccer match, a concert, a conversation, a dance, a common goal) the human parts start to synchronize and become a Crowd, an entity that starts to act on its own.

About Communication

The word “communion” means “becoming a union“. All communication arises through Synchronization. All communications are dances that coordinate the rhythmic processes shared among the engaging systems.

Communication is not a transmission of information, but rather a coordination of behavior among living organisms through Mutual Structural Coupling. Just like the Crowd, a communication, starts to live a life of its own, when the exchange of the vibrations of the conversation starts to synchronize. This happens within seconds.

conversation1

In the 1960’s, William Condon of Boston University School of Medicine pioneered the empirical study of communication as coupling. In the microanalysis of a few seconds of film he was astonished to find how the voice and bodily movements of speaker and listener were coordinated within intervals as short as 20 milliseconds.

Condon introduced the term entrainment to describe the coupled behavior. He noted that: “Communication is thus like a dance, with everyone engaged in intricate and shared movements across many subtle dimensions, yet all strangely oblivious that they are doing so“.

Coupling begins with getting the attention of other organisms, or more accurately, with distracting the organisms from other engagements so they are able to discern and respond to this engagement.

When the Oscillations of two Systems are outside a certain bandwith it looks like the most powerful system takes over control. The frequency of the synchronized system is a mean and when big numbers and small numbers are added the small numbers simply disappear. This situation is called an Overload.

Overloads are able to kill small systems because the small system is unable to cope with the huge pertuberations. People with a Dominant Personality are able to force (to entrain) Dependent people to copy their behavior.

About Synchronization

A System of N coupled different oscillators creates a very complex almost unsolvable mathematical problem. In 1975 Charles Peskin formulated the conjecture  that Systems would eventually synchronize even when the parts are not identical. In 1990 the conjecture has been proven by Strogatz and Mirollo.

Systems of Coupled Oscillators show four states called Phase Locking (Synchronization), Phase Drift (“Chaos“)  and Amplitude Death (“Order“). In the last state the oscillations stop completely.  The fourth state called a Chimera is a combination of a synchronized and a drifting state.

The most important issue to notice is the fact that the state of Amplitude Death is what we call Order. It is an exceptional state that can be reached when the exchange of information between the states is “compensating” the vibrations of the states or when the System is “compressed” into a Singularity.

synchronization

Most Systems are oscillating (“Cyclic“) and are in a Phase Drift (“Chaos“) or a Chimera trying to reach some sort of Synchronicity with the other connected Systems. In Nature every System is connected to every other System because of the Electro-Magnetic (and Sound) Fields they share.

Systems of Coupled Oscillators behave differently when the connections between the parts are delayed. It this case highly identical parts start to behave as not identical parts. When a delay occurs the stable rhythm of the heart can suddenly stop, resulting in a sudden death.

About the Circadian Clock

In order to cope with and to predict 24-hour rhythms in the environment, such as light and darkness, temperature or the availability of food, most, if not all, organisms have Circadian (“Daily“) Timing Systems. These systems generate circadian rhythms in a wide range of behavioral and physiological processes.

For most animal species, a main circadian pacemaker has been identified in an anatomically defined location in or close to the brain. During the last years, however, it has become clear that circadian systems are complex and that additional oscillators exist, both within and outside the central nervous system.

The Peripheral Circadian Clocks are situated in the Heart, the Liver, the Lungs and the Kidney. These organs are the same “organs” that are used in Chinese Acupuncture which is not strange because the Aim of Acupuncture is to Balance the Electro Magnetic Field in the Body.

For a correct functioning of the circadian timing system, these oscillators should be synchronized to one another and properly phased to the environmental cycle.

Synchronization between the oscillators occurs via interactions or coupling pathways, whereas the light-dark cycle is used for synchronization to the outside world.

The most important mammalian circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) at the base of the hypothalamus in the brain.

From the suprachiasmatic nucleus, nerve impulses travel via the sympathetic nervous system to the pineal gland and inhibit the production of melatonin. At night, these impulses stop and melatonin production ensues and is released into the body.

In fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds, the pineal gland appears to be directly sensitive to small amounts of light that penetrate the skin and skull.

In mammals, with increased development of the cerebral hemispheres, the pineal body came to lie deeper within the brain and indirect stimulation of the pineal gland by light via the retina came to be more important. The Suprachiasmatic Nuclei are connected to the Outer Eye and the Inner Eye, the Pineal Gland.

The Pineal Gland is called the 6th Chakra, the Third Eye (or the Eye of Horus), the Seat of the Imagination.  The Imagination, the Central Clock of our Body, is “in control” of all the other Clocks in our Body.

With the Help of our Imagination we are able to Cure and to Kill the Body.

pineal

Pineal Gland

About the Pineal Gland

The Earth is a huge magnetic sphere. The E/M field of the Earth varies in strength and consistency through the ages. Our bodies own magnetic frequencies and our bio-field patterns react to this variance of the Earth’s field.

The pineal gland is the principal structure in the brain that is directly sensitive to the Earth’s magnetic field. The Pineal Gland Senses the Field.  To sense the Field the Pineal Gland contains small calcite crystals.

Our bone structure Converts Vibrational Energy into Magnetic and Electric Energy. When the bone is bent it produces an E/M-field. This E/M-field interacts with the Pineal Gland and creates a Feed-Back Cycle.

The E/M-field of our Body, the Aura, is a combination of all kind of waves. A special type of wave-structure is called a Standing Wave.

When the E/M-field acts as a Standing Wave all the waves are in harmony and conserve structure. The Human body is in harmony when the total field of all the separate E/M-fields of the Body act as a Standing Wave.

The Standing Wave appears when the Spinal Wave of the Vertebrae of the Body is in a special Alignment.  If this happens the Standing Wave of the Spine Resonates with the Standing Wave of the Earth. At that moment the Kundalini Rises and the Pineal Gland reacts with a Huge Mystical Experience.

About the Heart

The heart beats about once a second throughout your life. These regular contractions pump blood to the Upper (Head) and the Lower part of the body and are driven by electrical impulses from a natural pacemaker inside the heart.

This pacemaker, known as the sino-atrial node, responds to signals from the Central Circadian Clock situated in the Hypothalamus that changes the heart rate according to the body’s needs (“the action potential“), making it slower when resting and faster during exercise.The rhythmic contractions of the heart are triggered by waves of electrical activity that spread from the sino-atrial node throughout the heart muscle.

There are small fluctuations in the time intervals between beats that are fractal in nature, and a loss in this variability is a sign of cardiac ill health. However, a cardiac arrhythmia, in which the rhythm of electrical waves that drive the heart is broken, can be lethal.

A loss in the synchronized rhythm of the heart causes different parts of the atrial or ventricular muscle to contract at different times, undermining the pumping action of the heart. An arrhythmia therefore leads to the mechanical failure of the heart.

The propagation of excitations in heart tissue can be described in terms of travelling waves with a velocity of about 0.5 m s-1 and an amplitude given by the action potential. Since the action potential lasts for several hundreds of milliseconds, a single wave extends over a distance of about 10 cm. This means that a normal human heart is hardly large enough to contain a single wave.

In the heart the wave propagates around a circular obstacle. The wave repeatedly travels along the same path at a frequency given by the wave velocity divided by the circumference of the obstacle.

If the radius is gradually decreased, the frequency increases until the wavefront of a new wave catches up with the tail of the previous wave. If the radius is made even smaller, the wave is forced to adopt a spiral shape that continues to rotate around a central core. Spiral  Waves have been observed in numerous chemical and physical experiments.

The Wave Structure of the Heart resembles the Wave Structure of the Universe. This could be the reason why the Heart plays such  an important role in many Religions.

When the Wave Structure of the Heart is coherent with the Wave Structure of the Whole, the Rhythm of your Life is in Sync with the Rhythm of the Universe.

The Pacemaker Cells are called the Heart Chakra, the 4th Chakra. The Heart Chakra acts as the Balance Point for all the Chakras.

The Balancing Point is the Middle of two Triangels related to  the Head and the Body that rotate With- and Counter-the-Clock creating a Moebius Ring.  The Pineal Gland, the Central Clock, is part of the Upper Triangel of the Mind.

Spiral Waves in the Heart

Chemical Spiral Waves

Chemical Spiral Waves

About Cymatics

In 1967, the late Hans Jenny, a Swiss doctor, artist, and researcher, published the book Cymatics,  The Structure and Dynamics of Waves and Vibrations. In this book Jenny showed what happens when one takes various materials like sand, spores, iron filings, water, and viscous substances, and places them on vibrating metal plates and membranes.

What then appears are shapes and motion- patterns which vary from the nearly perfectly ordered and stationary to those that are turbulently developing, organic, and constantly in motion.

When Jenny experimented with Fluids of various kinds he produced Wave motions, Spirals, and wave-like patterns in Continuous Circulation.

These patterns are the same patterns that are produced by Coupled Oscillators. This is not strange because Sound Waves are highly comparable to Electro Magnetic Waves.

With the help of simple tools it is possible to Simulate the Creation and Expansion of the Universe.

We don’t need very complicated tools to observe the Whole. The Whole shows its patterns everywhere, even in your bathtub.

The Whirpool Galaxy

The Whirpool Galaxy

About the Creation of the Universe

In beginning the Void, the Zero Point Field,  rotated in Silence until a Huge Action Potential disturbed its Eternal Rest.

The Void was in a state of Amplitude Death until a Statistical Fluctuation, an Act of Creation, moved the System into a Chimera and later a Phase Drift.

Out of the Phase Drift Two Coupled Oscillators (Yin & Yang) appeared that moved With- and Against the Clock creating a Spiral Motion, a Vortex.

The Two Coupled Oscillators were each others Complement because two Coupled Oscillators are always Complementary.

After a while the Phase Drift generated Four and More Oscillators and Space started to Expand.

The pattern of this Expansion is governed by the Metallic Mean, which generates Fluent or Quasi Crystals. Fluent Crystals are the basic structure of the Electro Magnetic System of the Human. Scientists believe that the basic structure of our Universe is a Fluent Crystal, a Hall of Mirrors.

Quasi Crystals

Quasi Crystals

Space stops expanding when the Unbalance of the Energy of the Act of Creation is compensated by the amount of Oscillators (Strings) of Expanding Space.

At that moment the Universe will move into the State of Synchronization and all the Parts will move with the Rhythm of the Central Clock, the Tao.

When this happens the Universe starts to contract until Space has reached the Void.

In the last step the Oscillation will stop and the Void and Amplitude Death will appear again.

LINKS

How bacteria entrain

Steven Strogatz: About Coupled Oscillators and Biology

A lecture about Coupled Oscillators

A presentation about Coupled Oscillators

About Engagement

About Standing Waves

About the Electro Magnetic Field in the Body

About the Cardiac Pacemaker Cells

About Cymatics

About the Heart Chakra

About Stress and the Action Potential

About the Zero Point Field

About the Metallic Mean

About the Hall of Mirrors

About Cradle to Cradle

Friday, August 15th, 2008

In 1998 William McDonough and Michael Braungart wrote an article called The NEXT Industrial Revolution. It was the start of a new sustainable design philosophy called Cradle to Cradle. Cradle to Cradle wants to restore the Natural Cycle.

Cradle to Cradle is based on three pillars: Equity (Social Justice), Economy (Market Viability), and Ecology (Environmental Intelligence).

 A citation out of the Next Industrial Revolution:

Many people believe that new industrial revolutions are already taking place, with the rise of cybertechnology, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. It is true that these are powerful tools for change. But they are only tools-hyperefficient engines for the steamship of the first Industrial Revolution. Similarly, eco-efficiency is a valuable and laudable tool, and a prelude to what should come next. But it, too, fails to move us beyond the first revolution. It is time for designs that are creative, abundant, prosperous, and intelligent from the start. The model for the Next Industrial Revolution may well have been right in front of us the whole time: a tree“.

A citation out of Carl Jung, Prologue from “Memories, Dreams, Reflections“:

Life has always seemed to me like a plant that lives on its rhizome. Its true life is invisible, hidden in the rhizome. The part that appears above the ground lasts only a single summer. Then it withers away-an ephemeral apparition. When we think of the unending growth and decay of life and civilizations, we cannot escape the impression of absolute nullity. Yet I have never lost the sense of something that lives and endures beneath the eternal flux. What we see is blossom, which passes. The rhizome remains“.

In the introduction chapter of A Thousands Plateaus, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, characterize the rhizome by six principles:

  • Connectivity

The capacity to aggregate by making connections at any point on and within itself.

  • Heterogeneity

The capacity to connect anything with anything other, the linking of unlike elements.

  • Multiplicity

Consisting of multiple singularities synthesized into a “whole” by relations of exteriority.

  • Asignifying rupture

Not becoming any less of a rhizome when being severely ruptured, the ability to allow a system to function and even flourish despite local breakdowns.

  • Cartography

A method of mapping for orientation from any point of entry within a “whole”, rather than by the method of tracing that re-presents an a priori path.

  • Decalcomania

Forming through continuous negotiation with its context, constantly adapting by experimentation

Cradle to Cradle (CtC) is a Design Philosophy. Design (Mapping Ideas unto A Model) is the first step in a Cyclic Process or even better a Spiraling Spiral Process.

I don’t know what the Philosphy of CtC is about the other “phases” of the Spiraling Spiral. I have not spend the time to read the Book. I am almost sure CtC is applying the Paradigm of the Age of Enlightment that lies behind the Industrial Revolution. Cradle to Cradle wants to CONTROL Nature by COPYING Nature.

The Question is Do We (and CtC) really Understand How Nature Works?

Is Nature Working at all?

Is Nature Functioning “like-a” Machine?

Are we able to Copy something we don’t Understand?

What are We Copying?

Is Copying without Insight perhaps a Way to Create something New?

Does it Matter if we are Creating Something New without Knowing what We are Doing”?

Is Life Itself not just a Creating Force exploring Every Possibility Available?

What is Wrong and What is Right?

The most interesting point in the article about the Next Industrial Revolution is the Use of the Tree Metaphor.

The Tree is a very old Symbol. It represents something that starts at the Bottom (Earth) and Moves Up. When it Moves Up is expands into a Hierarchical Network. At the top of the Tree of Life (or the Axis Mundi) the Ultimate Power, the Giver of Movement and Measure, is situated. Behind the New Industrial Revolution the Hierarchy (UP) and the Part (One;Tree) of the Whole (Many;Forest) becomes visible. If we are Moving UP we are Abstracting (or Imagining with Reason).

Jung, Deleuze & Guattari look at the The Down, the Primal Source, The Unknowable, the Invisible or the Unconsciousness. The Invisible is covered by Dark Earth. It is indestructible, connected, divers, not-linear, experimenting and adapting. The Invisible is the Rhizome. Every Year out of the Invisible Rhizome A Beautifull Rose Grows and Blossoms. “What we see is blossom, which passes. The rhizome remains“. (Jung).

If we Move Down we are Acting In The World instead of Looking at the World (The Observer).

When we move Down we have to become Practical.

What is the Practical Use, The Engineering Perspective, of the Rhizome?

There are Infinite Perspectives on our Reality and Engineering is just One of Them. We could add a Social Perspective and an Ecomic Perspective just like Cradle to Cradle is trying to do but there is more. We could add a Poetic and an Artistic Perspective but there is more. We could add an Animal perspective. We could look with the Eyes of the Ape, the Cat, The Fish, the Tiger, The Bacterium, The Sea, The Clouds, The Weather. We could use our Empathy to Imagine how the Earth, The Sun, The Universe, Molecules, Cells, Atoms, Higgs Particles, Cars, Aeroplanes, Ipods are “looking” at the Ecology of My Garden, Our Village, Your Country, Their Culture. We could even Look at Ourselves.

Are we able to Unite all of these Perspectives? Yes and No.

No: they are Different.

Yes: They are Perspectives and Perspectives are Looking at the Same Thing.

They are looking at the Whole but the Whole is not a Thing. It is a interconnected Adapting Diversity. It is a highly Complex Dynamic Network of Networks of Events. We cannot detect Causality because Causality is related to a Liniair Perspective.  Every Act is the Cause and the Effect of any other Act.

If we look from a Distance (the Observer) we See Repeating Cyclic Patterns that are Self-References.

If we Find these Patterns (Frames of Reference) we Know where the Flow of Nature is moving to for a little while. The Pattern becomes Repetitive. At a sudden moment the Flow moves in another Way and we have to Observe again. If we Move with the Flow we will know Where we are “Allowed” to Build and to Grow. If we Feel the Field we will See that A Building or an Engine is already Designed and wants to Move to Reality. We don’t have to Design. The Design is Immanent. We just have to help to Materialize.

The most interesting Self-Reference to explore is I (You).

I am in the World and the World is in Me.