## Posts Tagged ‘charles babbage’

Monday, December 29th, 2008

The Computer of Fowler

The first fully programmable computer was Designed by Charles Babbage in 1837. Babbage failed to get enough money to Build his Analytical Engine. It was never build.

The failure of Charles Babbage delayed the creation of the current computer for about a 100 years.

Nobody knows that Thomas Fowler Designed and Implemented a completely different and simple wooden computer in 1840. The big difference between Babbage and Fowler was the Number System. Babbage used Base 10. Fowler used the Balanced Ternary Number System.

The balanced ternary number system is created by balancing Ternary (Base 3) Numbers around the Centre of the Number Line, 0. A balanced ternary number is a combination of negative and positive ternary numbers.

The balanced ternary number system is a very special Number System because all the basic mathematical operations, addition, subtracting, multiplication and division are accomplished by the application of very simple operations based on very special symmetries.

Symmetries are the foundation of Simplicity, Beauty and Elegance. The Engine of Fowler was a very simple and beautiful machine made out of wood.

In 1958 a Ternary Computer, the Setun, was build at the Moscow State University. It was never used.

When you want to represent a number you can start with base 1. The number 13 is represented by thirteen “1′s, “1111111111111″.

Of course you are free to use other symbols to represent the number “1″. When you want to represent 13 goats you could use 13 goat-like symbols. When you want to represent many goats the sequence of goat-like symbols becomes very long.

The next step is to group the goat-like numbers. You could group them in binary groups (11 11 11 11 11 11 1), ternary groups (111 111 111 111 1) or in every other group you want.

In every case you have to assign new symbols like “1″ → “-”, “11″→ “=” and “111″ → “≡”. The number 13 becomes “≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ -”.

When you have defined a grouping method you can repeat this method. The only thing you need is a new symbol “x” to represent repetition, a symbol that represents addition “+”, a rule how to read the sequence (left to right, right to left) and symbols (“(,”)”) that show what has to be combined. ≡ x (≡) + ≡ + – now means 3X3 + 3 + 1 = 13 (and not 3x(3+1 +1) = 21).

If you want to use a high base number you need many symbols to represent the numbers of the group. If you use a low base number you need many symbols to represent the repetition. An obvious strategy is to minimize the product of these two quantities. The result of this calculation is the number 3 (or better the number e)!

The number 3 is the most efficient way to represent numbers. There is much more to say about the properties of the number 3. One of these properties can be used in Databases and Storage systems.

A Balanced Ternary Storage system can be easily expanded because you can always add a new entrance in the middle. The Balanced Ternary Storage System (represented by the Arabic Mystical Lote Tree) is one of the simplest and efficient storing methods of data.

What is the reason behind this Blog?

The Universe is a highly complicated Knot

I am writing this blog because I have spent a lot of time to research the Scientific and Spiritual Trinity. The mathematical and the spiritual theory about the Trinity have a lot in common.

The Trinity or the Ternary Number System is the most efficient, most effective and most beautiful (in terms of symmetries) way to Represent, Calculate and Store Numbers. The Trinity is therefore the most effective Way to Represent the Fractal Expansion of the Dynamic Whole.

What happened?

The beginning of the Universe is a transformation of the Void (Ø) into the Nothing (0).

In the next step,  the Egg of the 0 became the One (1) that splitted into the Duality (2) to become Aware of Itself.

In this case the first sequence of creation becomes Ø,0,1,2.

When we rewrite this sentence in balanced ternary language we read something else. In this case the beginning of the Universe is an expansion of the Void (0) into a negative (-1) and a positive part (1). The first sequence of creation becomes Ø (zero members of the set), (-1,0,1)(3 members of the set).

In the ternary balanced language the next expansion of the Universe is created by expanding the negative and positive part of the Universe in the Middle. A new expansion is created by adding the same structure in the Middle of the Middle of the Middle.

 1 Ø 2 -1 0 1 -1 0 1 -1 0 1 3 -2 -1 -0 0 +0 1 2

This expansion moves on until the system has replicated itself. At that time the expansion moves faster and faster and faster. The Self-Referencing System of the Universe, the “Divine Fractal“, is unfolding itself at an ever increasing (logaritmic) speed in a spiraling spiral pattern creating many more (negative and positive) Numbers.

At a certain point the Negative and Positive numbers are Voided in the Zero and the Universe starts to expand again.

The unfolding creates many universes and one of these Universes is our own Universe. All the time the center, the 0, the Void, stayed at the middle.

At this moment the lowest level, our level, is almost finished and a new Evolution, a Jump to a new Level, has to start. This Jump will be a Jump out of the middle, the Heart Chakra.

Is this Explanation too Simple?

This explanation is much too simple because the whole creation process is now projected into one dimension, a Line,  and we are looking at the third step of the Fourty-Two (3×13 +4) Steps that have happened until now.

The basic structure of the Material Universe, the World Clock of Wolfgang Pauli, carried by the Demiurg, The Trickster.

Every split of the universe creates a new dimension. The splitted parts of the Universe, the balanced ternary trees, are Rotating Structures that contain Rotating Structures.

They look like the image of the rotating World Clock of Wolfgang Pauli that is carried by the Raven (the Trickster, the Demiurg), the Four Beasts in the Vision of Ezekiel and the Sri Yantra.

The other complication is that the Universe is creating its own Space and is therefore closed in itself. There is no Outside of the Universe. We are not living Inside an expanding Balloon but are travelling the Inside Surface.

When the Universe has expanded for a very long time the many dimensions are still there but they show themselves in very complicated Topological Structures like (Celtic) Knots, connected Moebius Rings, the Symbol of Infinity and the Klein Bottle, the Basic Structure behind Alchemy.

It is simply impossible to show and understand the current complexity. The only thing that is very helpful is to realize that the structure behind  the Universe is a Fractal.

The Balanced Ternary Tree of 43.

This means that that at every level the same structure repeats itself. When you know everything there is to know about One Level you know every thing there is to know about Every Level.

If You understand the Human Being, You understand the Universe.  This principle was called by the Ancient Scientists, “So Above, So Below” and “As Within, So Without”.

The Balanced Ternary Number System or the Trinity that contains the Trinity can be used to explain Your Self.

It can be used to explain the “strange” behavior of the Brain Trinity, a combination of a Whole, the Body, A Left and a Right Brain. The “Trinity Pattern” repeats itself in every part of your body.

The pattern of Seven (The Trinity in the Trinity) shows itself as the Seven Chakra’s. The next step, the Thirteen (3×4 +1 = 13),  shows itself in the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac (+ the Center, the Pole Star), the Twelve Apostles (+ Jesus) and the Twelve Knight of Arthur (+Arthur).

The Expansion of this pattern on a much deeper level also generates the  Acupuncture Points (Nadi’s) in Your Body.

Why is Science not Aware of this?

The main reason can be found in the story of Thomas Fowler. He invented a Very Simple computer system but he was beaten by the Complicated system of Charles Babbage.

Babbage used the 10 base to define his Engine and he needed lots of money to create this very complicated system. He never finished his analytical engine but many years later IBM almost copied his design when they developed the IBM 360. They were, like Microsoft, experts in Marketing. They sold what the Customer wanted to buy and never took time to think about the Essence.

The Klein Bottle, The Universe Closed in Itself, the Basic Structure behind Alchemy.

Thomas Fowler was a very simple man. He tried to do his best and was never aware of the power structures that controlled science and the market at that time. He wanted to help people but helping people is the stupidest thing you can do in a capitalistic system.

When an infrastructure is chosen it is almost impossible to change the infrastructure because everything that is build on top of this infrastructure becomes obsolete when the foundation is wrong. We will never be able to introduce a ternary computer infrastructure unless something happens that breaks the upper layer. Some people think this time is near.

Simplicity, Elegance, Beauty and Efficiency are not the main object of Capitalism. The main object of Capitalism is Making Profit.

What is the best Way to acquire Scientific Knowledge?

Thomas Fowler was not educated in the science of his time. He just invented the mathematics he needed. When he was educated in the science of his time he could have invented the same machine but it is much more plausible that he would have invented another Analytical Engine.

Thomas Fowler used his own judgment and his own talent to create something he thought was useful to support his own banking system (he also created a Bank!).

The Balanced Ternary Database of the Universe was called the Akasha. According to the Ancient Scientists of India every memory of the past and the future is stored in the Universe. They believed we are part of a Super Mind and this Mind knows everything that has happened or will happen.

The Vortex, a Painting of Walter Russell

Some people are suddenly connected to this Super Mind. They are Enlightened and find a solution for a very complicated problem in a Dream or a Trance State.

One of the most important scientists of our time, Wolfgang Pauli, found everything he wanted to know in the Akasha. There are many others like Walter Russell (The Secret of Light) and Malcolm McEwen (The Lesson of the Light).

Strangely enough all of them receive or have received the same information.

What is going to happen?

The expansion of our Universe is getting into a critical state. This state is visible in all the fractal levels of our Universe.

It is visible in the Weather System, The Ecological System, The Economic System and the Cultural System. All of them are changing.

It is also visible in many Human Beings who experience the intervention of the Super-Mind in their Lives.

The big transformation must be visible in the Seven, until now not-connected universes. The other universes are currently shielded behind a Veil but this veil is slowly lifting. The movement of the Veil could explain the huge increase of Strange Encounters with Extraterrestials.

Our universe has been expanding and but very soon it will or may appear to stop. Our Universe may even begin to appear to shrink but it is not because it is reversing, heading towards some kind of big crunch but because it is folding, connecting to Itself, the Super Mind.

In the first stages of the Universe the Light was created but now we are entering a new phase where the consciousness of the Super Mind, is opening up to all the inhabitants of all the Seven Universes.

The opening of the Super Mind to all the Souls of the Universe has been named with many names in many religions all over the World (Ascension, the Golden Age, Point Omega, The Last Judgment, the Fifth World, The End of Time).

It is not clear what the connection with the Super Mind will accomplish. Many inspired scientists and prophets have tried to describe and explain this state.

One thing is sure it will be very different from the current situation where we are all isolated souls existing in many disconnected time-lines in many disconnected universes.

Why the number e is the best base for a modular system

Many Properties of Ternary Numbers

Many Properties of the Balance Ternary Number

Why the Balanced Ternary Numbers are Special

A Visualization of the Trinity Pattern with the Platonic Solids

The 4 Videos of Malcolm McEwen below contain a Visualization of the Trinity Pattern

McEwen, Video, The Lesson of the Light, Nr 1

McEwen, The Lesson of the Light, Video, Nr 2

McEwen, The Lesson of the Light, Video, Nr 3

About Plato and the New Harmony

About the Expansion of the Whole

How to Divide the Whole

About the Hermetic Principle (“As Above, So Below”).

About the Book of Triangels of St. Germain

### How to Create Human Scale Tools: About Movers, Memories and Comparators

Wednesday, March 26th, 2008

Humans are the most advanced toolmakers in nature. The main reason is that they are the less specialized organisms. They need tools to survive. People are also the most complex organisms in nature. This complexity makes it possible to invent new possibilities and to work with specialized tools and animals (horse, cow, hammer, car, computer).

All the time people have tried to make a better living by inventing new tools. If the basic needs were met (food, housing, health, safety), people got the time to get their emotional system into balance (love, self-esteem) and satisfy their imagination (play, explore, self-actualization).

At this moment, the amount of leisure-time to enjoy family life, relax, play and explore is going down. The number of people with heavy levels of stress is growing. The pressure on the emotions is increased by the current state of technology. The tools have overlapping functionality, take too much of the attention, do not communicate with each other and dominate the human being.

Tools have to be integrated completely in the cognitive system of the human being. If a tool takes over a part of the sensory-motor system (glasses, hammer, car) the imagination has to learn a new way to create the outside world. In the end, after practicing, people become united with their hammer or their car. They are not aware that they are carrying their glasses. If people have to practice too long or the tool is constantly intervening in their workflow the emotions get involved. They get frustrated and angry.

Tools were first invented to support basic human activities like talking, moving, looking,  hearing, remembering and learning.

In a later stage of development, the use of the tools generated a new space of exploration. In this space, new tools emerged.

The invention of symbols started the exploration of Mental Space. Program Languages, Telecommunication and especially the Internet has opened up a new space to explore, called Cyberspace.

Advisors and masters involve the emotions. An advisor helps to make a choice or to set priorities. A master (e.g. a physician, teacher, manager) makes a choice for a person. The Cyberspace version of the master and the advisor is the Expert System. It uses advanced ways of pattern-recognition (e.g. Neural Networks).

• Simulator

Simulators stimulate the imagination. Theaters and movies are examples of passive simulators.  Games are actively involving many people. The Cyberspace version of the active simulator is the Collaborative Computer Game. The passive form can be seen in the Movie and the Television-program.

• Memory

A memory archives the results of an internal or external dialogue. In the beginning, human communication was only verbal. Important issues to remember were incorporated in stories that were told from one generation to the other. When people specialized their activities, they needed a method (bookkeeping) to keep track of all the transfers. People invented symbols and the external memory to do this.  The writing-symbols made it possible to share and exchange memories (letters, books) without talking. Writing enabled the movement of memories. The library was invented to store the external memories and protect them from fading away. Cyberspace is filled with the versions of static and moving memory called the Electronic Message (Email, Transaction) and the Database.

• Mover

Movers were the first tools used in human society. A mover is an extension of the muscles. The first generation was invented to help the human move in physical space. Examples are hammers, cows, horses, steam-machines, cars, bicycles and robots. The next generation supported the movement of symbols (e.g. moving numbers) in mental space. The Difference Engine of Charles Babbage was invented to automate the calculation of mathematical tables. The most advance version of the mover, the telecommunication network, enables the movement of external memory’s in cyberspace.

• Sensor

Sensors transform and filter data. Glasses and hearing aids were invented to support people when they get old.  Humans looked at the stars and invented the telescope. In a later stage very advanced sensors were developed (Radio-telescope, MRI). They use complex statistical calculations to filter and transform the sampled data into pictures or sounds.

• Comparator

Human survival and learning is based on comparing data and acting on the result. A comparator acts on an exception. To compare data a measurement instrument is needed and a agreement about the object of measure. The invention of this device has provided a bypass pathway that conserves a lot of energy and is guaranteed to put smaller numbers on one’s economy 7 energy meter.

Human beings started to measure time and space a long time ago. It was needed to navigate and to predict the movement of the stars. In the first phase, the human body was used as a measure-instrument of space and the cycle of the sun and the moon as a measurement for time. The big problem with this approach was that every person and every place on earth came up with a different measurement and a different time. \

When the human networks started to connect, standardization on a global level became necessary.  The process of standardization of time and space took many ages. It needed numerous inventions in technology to support the process. The measure-instruments changed from mechanical devices (the clock) to software-devices.

• Servant (Operating System)

A servant coordinates the activities of sensors, comparators and memories. Servants take over repetitive patterns.  Humans find these activities boring (not imaginative). A servant has to act invisible (a black box).

When the use of a servant is prohibited, humans get frustrated. It has to be there all the time and do its job inconspicuous. With the help of the comparator and the sensor, the servant has to detect events and take appropriate action (coordinated movements, action patterns).

The big problem at this moment is the visibility and the interference of the servant in the human activity. People have to fill in the same form all the time. Processes stop in the middle of a company. The customer has to handover the data to the other processes.

Humans do not like to be emotional involved in boring activities.  Therefore, the needs (their wishes) have to be defined in a very simple way. It must be possible to imagine the behavior of the complete system without knowing how the system is operating.

A good example of a perfect servant is the central heating system. People define their needs (a temperature) and everything works. The temperature is a control variable that represents the performance of the total heating system. People are able to imagine the effect of adjusting the thermostat (a comparator) on the environment they live in. They do not need to know how the servant works. His behavior is hidden. The central heating system is a black box, loosely coupled with another invisible servant-system, the utility-system (gas, electricity).

The servant and its associates were in the first era of IT locked into the physical space of the general-purpose computer controlled by its general purpose operating System. The servants had to stay close together because of the speed of communication. The speed and the capacity of the telecommunication network is going up fast.  This makes it possible to distribute, specialize and connect Servants (now called Appliances).

### Why Software Layers always create new Software Layers

Wednesday, March 26th, 2008

The IT-Industry has evolved in nearly 50 years. In that timeframe, it became the most influential business in the Industry. Everybody is completely dependent on the computer and its software.

The IT-Industry has gone through various technology waves. The waves generated integration problems that were solved by the construction of abstraction layers. The layers not only solved problems. They also created new problems that were solved by other layers. The effect of all intertwining layers is an almost incomprehensible, not manageable, software-complex.

The main reason behind this development is the architecture of the general-purpose computer. It was developed to control and not to collaborate.

Charles Babbage invented the first computer (the Difference Engine) in 1833. Babbage wanted to automate the calculation of mathematical tables. His engine consisted of four parts called the mill (the Central Processing Unit, the Operating System), the Store (the database), the Reader, and the Printer. The machine was steam-driven and run by one attendant. The Reader used punched cards.

Babbage invented a programming-language and a compiler to translate symbols into numbers. He worked together with the first programmer, Lady Lovelace who invented the term bug (a defect in a program). The project of Babbage stopped because nobody wanted to finance him anymore.

It was not until 1954 that a real (business-) market for computers began to emerge by the creation of the IBM 650. The machines of the early 1950s were not much more capable than Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine of the 1830s.

Around 1964 IBM gave birth to the general-purpose computer, the mainframe, in its 360-architecture (360 means all-round). The 360/370-architecture is one of the most durable artifacts of the computer age. It was so successful that it almost created a monopoly for IBM. Just one company, Microsoft, has succeeded to beat IBM by creating the general-purpose computer for the consumer (the PC). Microsoft copied (parts of ) the OS/2-operating system of IBM.

The current technical infrastructure looks a lot like the old fashioned 360/370-architecture but the processors are now located on many places. This was made possible by the sharp increase in bandwith and the network-architecture of the Internet.

Programming a computer in machine code is very difficult. To hide the complexity a higher level of abstraction (a programming language) was created that shielded the complexity of the lower layer (the machine code). A compiler translated the program back to the machine code. Three languages (Fortran, Algol and COBOL) were constructed. They covered the major problem-area’s (Industry, Science and Banking) of that time.

When the problem-domains interfered, companies were confronted with integration problems. IBM tried to unify all the major programming-languages (COBOL, Algol and Fortran) by introducing a new standard language, PL1. This approach failed. Companies did not want to convert all their existing programs to the new standard and programmers got accustomed to a language. They did not want to lose the experience they had acquired.

Integration by standardizing on one language has been tried many times (Java, C-Sharp). It will always fail for the same reasons. All the efforts to unify produce the opposite effect, an enormous diversity of languages, a Tower of Bable.

To cope with this problem a new abstraction layer was invented. The processes and data-structures of a company were analyzed and stored in a repository (an abstraction of a database). The program-generator made it possible to generate programs in all the major languages.

It was not possible to re-engineer all the legacy-systems to this abstraction-level. To solve this problem a compensating integration-layer, Enterprise Architecture Integration, was designed.

The PC democratized IT. Millions of consumers bought their own PC and started to develop applications using the tools available. They were not capable to connect their PC’s to the mainframe and to acquire the data they needed out of the central databases of the company.

New integration layers (Client-Server Computing and Data-Warehouses) were added.

Employees connected their personal PC to the Internet and found out that they could communicate and share software with friends and colleagues all over the world. To prohibit the entrance of unwanted intruders, companies shielded their private environment by the implementation of firewalls. Employees were unable to connect their personal environment with their corporate environment.

A new integration problem, security, became visible and has to be solved.

It looks like every solution of an integration problem creates a new integration problem in the future.

The process of creating bridges to connect disconnect layers of software is going on and on. The big problem is that the bridges were not created out of a long time perspective. They were created bottom up, to solve an urgent problem.

IT-technology shows all the stages of a growing child. At this moment, companies have to manage and to connect many highly intermingled layers related to almost every step in the maturing process of the computer and its software.

Nobody understands the functionality of the whole and can predict the combined behavior of all the different parts. The effort to maintain and change a complex software-infrastructure is increasing exponentially.

The IT Industry has changed his tools and infrastructure so often that the software-developer had to become an inventor.

He is constantly exploring new technical possibilities not able to stabilize his craft. When a developer is used to a tool he does not want to replace it with another. Most developers do not get the time to gain experience in the new tools and technologies. They have to work in high priority projects. Often the skills that are needed to make use of the new developments are hired outside.

The effect is that the internal developers are focused on maintaining the installed base and get further behind. In the end, the only solution that is left is to outsource the IT-department creating communication problems.

After more than 40 years of software-development, the complexity of the current IT-environment has become overwhelming. The related management costs are beginning to consume any productivity gain that they may be achieving from new technologies.

It is almost impossible to use new technology because 70 to 90% of the IT budget is spent on keeping existing systems running. If new functionality is developed, only 30% of the projects are successful.

If the complexity to develop software is not reduced, it will take 200 million highly specialized workers to support the billion people and businesses that will be connected via the Internet.

In the manufacturing industry, the principles of generalization and specialization are visible. Collaboration makes it possible to create flexible standards and a general-purpose infrastructure to support the standards.

When the infrastructure is established, competition and specialization starts. Cars use a standardized essential infrastructure that makes it possible to use standardized components from different vendors.

Car vendors are not competing on the level of the essential infrastructure. The big problem is that IT-Industry is still fighting on the level of the essential infrastructure, blocking specialization.

To keep their market share the software has to stay in the abstraction framework (the general purpose architecture) they are selling and controlling.

A new collaborative IT-infrastructure is arising. The new infrastructure makes it possible to specialize and simplify programs (now called services). Specialized messages (comparable to the components in the car industry), transported over the Internet, connect the services. This approach makes it much easier to change the connections between the services.

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), founded in October 1994, is leading the development of this new collaborative infrastructure. W3C has a commitment to look after the interest of the community instead of business. The influence of W3C is remarkable. The big competitive IT-companies in the market were more or less forced to use the standards created by the consortium. They were unable to create their own interpretation because the standards are produced as open source software.

The basis of the new collaborative foundation is XML (eXtensible Markup Language). XML is a flexible way to create “self-describing data” and to share both the format (the syntax) and the data on the World Wide Web. XML describes the syntax of information.

XML has enabled a new general-purpose technology-concept, called Web-Services. The concept is comparable to the use of containers in intermodal shipping. A container enables the transport a diversity of goods (data, programs, content) from one point to another point. At the destination, the container can be opened. The receiver can rearrange the goods and send them to another place. He can also put the goods in his warehouse and add value by assembling a new product. When the product is ready it can be send with a container to other assembly lines or to retailers to sell the product to consumers.

Web-Services facilitate the flow of complex data-structures (services, data, content) through the Internet. Services, can rearrange data-structures, ad value by combining them with other data-structures and can send the result to other services.

All kinds of specialized data-structures are defined that are meant to let specialized services act on them.

An example is taxation (XML TC). XML TC (a part of the Oasis standards organization) focuses on the development of a common vocabulary that will allow participants to unambiguously identify the tax related information exchanged within a particular business context. The benefits envisioned will include dramatic reductions in development of jurisdictionally specific applications, interchange standards for software vendors, and tax agencies alike. In addition, tax-paying constituents will benefit from increased services from tax agencies. Service providers will benefit due to more flexible interchange formats and reduced development efforts. Lastly, CRM, payroll, financial and other system developers will enjoy reduced development costs and schedules when integrating their systems with tax reporting and compliance systems.

Web-Services are the next shockwave that is bringing the IT-community into a state of fear and attraction. Their promise is lower development cost, and a much simpler architecture. Their threat is that the competition will make a better use of all the new possibilities.

The same pattern emerges. Their installed base of software slows most of the companies down. They will react by first creating an isolated software-environment and will have big problems in the future to connect the old part with the new part.

Web-Services will generate a worldwide marketplace for services. They are now a threat to all the current vendors of big software-packages. In essence, they have to rewrite all their legacy-software and make a split in generic components (most of them will be available for free) and essential services users really want to pay for.

Big software-vendors will transform themselves into specialized market places (service-portals) where users can find and make use of high quality services. Other vendors will create advanced routing-centers where messages will be translated and send to the appropriate processor.

It will be difficult for small service-providers to get the attention and the trust of companies and consumers to make use of their services. They will join in collaborative networks that are able to promote and secure their business (The Open Source Movement). It is impossible to see if they will survive in the still competitive environment where big giants still have an enormous power to influence and a lot of money to create new services.

If the big giants succeed, history will repeat itself. The new emerging software-ecology will slowly lose its diversity.

Web-services are an example of the principles of mass-customization and customer innovation. All the software-vendors are restructuring their big chunks of software into components that can be assembled to create a system.

Small competitors and even customers will also create components. In due time the number of possible combinations of components that are able to create the same functionality will surpass the complexity a human (or a collective of human beings) can handle.

How the Programmer stopped the Dialogue

How to Destroy Your Company by Implementing Packages