Archive for the ‘Completed’ Category

Status Report Future Center Smart Systems

Saturday, July 12th, 2014

The Future Center Smart Systems was launched the 23th of April 2014. After the launch a part of the participants wanted to be part of the process.


To support this process we have created an intake-procedure  to make sure that the issue at stake is related to Smart Systems and that it is possible to move on if we detect an interesting connection between the possible participant, current participants and LIACS.


An important issue in this case is funding. Funding is possible if the participant has a personal budget or if it possible to acquire a budget based on a shared proposal.

In this case Subsidies, Government Funding (Local/Global Investment Funds), Corporate Funding  or Private Funding (“Angels”) are possible. We are now connected with all kinds of investors.   If we are able to create a successful business-case funding is almost sure.


The Future Center uses a Innovation Management Toolset that makes it possible to assess an opportunity in short time. The use of the Toolset is not for free. If you don’t have private funding you need about Euro 5,000 Private Capital to acquire money.


The Future Center is situated in Leiden and is connected to LIACS (Leiden Institute of Advanced Computing Science).

Currently we have made connections with the Region of Leiden, the Province of South Holland, the International Alliance of Future Centers and Europe of the Regions. LIACS is part of an International Scientific Networks. We are also connected to many Local, Regional, National and International Business Networks or Companies. This makes it possible to explore every Business, Government or Scientific opportunity.

Transforming IT-Professionals

Smart Systens will have a huge impact on Society, the IT-branche and of course on the users of IT (Consumers & Companies). To support this big (digital) transformation we have made contact with the NGI (the Dutch Organization of IT Professinals).

They have created a link with the Future Center in their SIG-structure (Special Interest Groups). Together with them we are defining a training program to help IT Professionals move to the next step.

Based on the Path of Change Model we use we have defined four basic views called Business Analist (Process, Sensors, Facts), Data Analist (Models, Analytics), Innovator (Imagination, Vision, Insight) and Community Manager (Social, Networks). The views can be combined into twelve roles that correspond with the Games of Path of Change.

Network of Smart Systems Specialists

We have made a connection with an International Network of Specialist that are already creating or supporting the creation of Smart Systems. This network is a Closed Cooperative that wants to maintain the high quality of people by sharing knowledge, experience, insight and customers.

We are now creating the Dutch part of this network. The network uses balloting by two members to enter. If you think you have the high quality needed send an email.

Connecting Small & Medium Enterprises

Although Big Companies are welcome we believe that the coming transformation will be done by networks of Small & Medium Enterprises.


This link contains the current portfolio. We are finishing an attempt to create a Smart System Architecture. A new project related to Smart Vital Infrastructure is in the making. At this moment the majority of the participants are busy in Smart Healthcare.


About the Next Steps of the Future Center Smart Systems and the Leiden Center of Data Science

Sunday, May 4th, 2014

At 28-4-2014 the Future Center Smart Systems (FCSS) was launched At the same moment the Leiden Center of Data Science (LCDS) was announced. This is not a coincidence.

FCSS and LCDS are two parts of the same coin. LCDS is focused on the Science of Data and FCSS is focused on using the results of the Science of Data to build Smart Systems or to give the Science of Data interesting problems to solve. FCSS is Practice and LCDS is theory.

When we look at Wikipedia we see that the Data Sciences are defined as “The study of the generalizable extraction of knowledge from data”. Knowledge shows itself in this case as Models, Patterns and Laws (Rules).

The Data Sciences detect patterns based on facts and are an abstraction of the Scientific Process itself.  The Data Sciences are therefore also called E-Science. 

E-Science is a combination of:  Signal processing, Mathematics, Probability models, Machine learning, Statistical learning, Computer programming, Data engineering, Pattern recognition and learning, Visualization, Uncertainty modeling, Data warehousing, and High performance computing.

Because E-Science is an abstraction of Science it can be applied to every science you can think of. In the case of the LCDS the current sciences that are involved are Physics, Astronomy, Bio-Science (Leiden Bioscience Park), Life-Sciences (Dutch Techcenter for Life Sciences, DTL), Medical Sciences (LUMC), Law (Leiden Law School), Aviation (NLR), Mathematics and Informatics (LIACS).

The FCSS is not only about E-Science it is also about using the patterns that are discovered to control processes and influence humans. In this case we are interested in the developments in Value, Case & Process-managers,  Domain Models and Sensor-Technology. Theory is static and practice is dynamic. Theory becomes practice by doing.

In the long view we expect that the combination of Senses & Actions & Thinking Machines will lead to Autonomous Systems that will help and support Humans. These systems are sometimes called Robots because we believe Autonomous Systems look like us but an autonomous system like our Universe does not have to move itself.

The next step of the Future Center is to connect with practice, start with technology transfer and find out what the need is of the market.

The Future Center is already involved in some projects and we wants to start some more. If you are interested to participate in one of the projects or want to start a new projects send an email to

  • Smart System Architectures
Smart Systems need Smart System Architectures. They are a combination of existing architectures based on Process-Models & Sensor-Systems (the Sensory-Motor System) and new architecture that are related to Visualization (the Imagination), Analytics (Data, Process, Text, Software-mining (Thinking)) and Social Networks. (Emotions). The end state is called Global Brain (“The Singularity”).
  • Disclosure of Open Data (Repository, Data Warehouses/Data Cards, Visualization)
A lot of Open Data is entering the market. It is not clear where this data is situated and what the data means. In this case we need a Repository and tools to define what part of the data we need at this moment (a Data Warehouse, Data Cards). We need also tools to hide the complexity of the current open databases and makes it possible to show what is available (Visualization).
  • Smart Innovation (Business-model generation out of Big- & Open Data) 

There are already many on-line tools available that support the innovation process. The data that is used in these tools (for instance market-data) has to be gathered to validate the models. We want to use the Data-sciences to gather appropriate market-data and detect interesting business-opportunities, To do that we want to use Big- and especially Open Data. 

  • Smart Value Chain Integration & Reversal (Product Configurators, Data/Proces/Software-Mining, Intelligent User-Interfaces)
The value-chains are integrating and the customer is moving into control. Currently a value chain consists of many companies that use many not integrated and not connected legacy-systems. These systems contain data and process-models. We want to use the Data-Sciences to detect these models (Process-mining. Data-Mining, Software-Mining) and map them to available domain-models (ACCORD, ARTS,…) or develop shared domain-models. The data that is used in the value-chain can be mapped to a product-configurator. Last but not least the user-interaction with the customers has te be designed.
  • Smart Education (Just-in-Time Education)
Technology is changing fast. This has a huge impact on education. The current system of education is not able  to react to the fast moving technology-waves because it is created  to support the Industrial Revolution that ended around 1950. We are now beyond the next wave that is taking over manual work and moving into the next step in which the Human Brian is copied. The solution to this all, Life Long Education,  is already invented a long time ago but we are not implementing this solution because the Current Education System is aimed at preventive education, trying to train people in the first stage of their life. The solution is Just-in-Time-Education, training people at the moment they need knowledge (DeepQA) or experience (Simulators).
  • Smart Buildings & Building Process (with ABN AMRO Dialogs House)
The Building Industry is already using 3D-Models (BIM). A BIM-model is a low-level product-configurator but the model can be moved to a higher level in which it is possible to share (and sell) complete Models (for instance a Hospital). The models can be used to simulate every attribute of a building and let the customers play with possible designs. The models can be used to calculate risk and most important optimize existing buildings (Facility Management). When we combine this with sensor-technology we are able to create adaptable buildings.
  • Smart Food Chain & Dietetics
The Food Value Chain will revert and the customer will be in control. At this moment the customers are educated with theories about food that are changing fast. “Good” Food is time, context and body-dependent. We want to make tools that use personal sensors that show the customer what they have to eat to stay healthy and tell them where and how they can buy this food.
  • Food & Health (with the International Alliance of Future Centers)
It is not clear what the impact is of Food on our Health. In this project we will analyze the complete food-chain.
  • Smart Urban Space (The Self Actualizing City)
This is an integration of the concepts of the Smart City, Integrated Value Chains, the Creative City and Smart Social Networks.
  • Next Generation Media

Media are at this moment based on the Sender/Receiver-concept. We want to use the Data Sciences to detect patterns, transform these patterns into text and images and implement a feed-back process with the customers.

  • Next Generation Theatre
We want to use the concept of  5D Film to create a new type of sensory and emotional experience.
  • Next Generation Energy Systems
Implementing Autarkic Energy Systems.
  • Smart Mobility
Using new concepts like the Self-Driving Car & Sensor-Networks  to optimize mobility in Big Cities.
  • Social Enterprises (Impact Finance, Social Bonds, Circular Systems, Cooperatives, Complementary Currencies)
The next generation enterprises has to be aware and reduce its impact on society and environment. In this project we also look the finance of Social Enterprises (Impact Finance, Social Bonds) but also at the circular economy, new organizational structures (cooperations, ) and new financial systems based on complementary currencies.
  • Conflict-Resolution/E-Mediation
Preventing and resolving conflicts by implementing Smart Mediation.
  • Future Jobs (Unemployement & Sense-making, with the International Alliance of Future Centers)
What are the consequences of Smart Systems on employment?
  • Smart Care Systems

We want to use Smart Systems to help people that need Economic, Physical, Social and/or Mental Support.

  • Virtual Future Centers (with the International Alliance of Future Centers) 
Future Centers are currently location-based. Future Centers look like Smart Systems because they Sense their environment, react (Process Manager) on the Events that are happening, try to predict what will happen (Analytics), involve Networks (Communitiies of Practice, Interest and/or Affinity) and Scientific Knowledge Centers (like the LCDS), create a shared Vision and  put this vision into Action (Entrepeneurs, Innovators, Incubators). There are already many people busy with developing parts of the Virtual Future Center. We are currently designing an Architecture and will create an Alliance to join the efforts of all participants.
  • Next Generation Secure Data Centers
Smart Systems need Smart Data Centers.


The Presentation of Prof. dr. H. J. van den Herik about Big Data and the Leiden Center of Data Science.


About the Next Wave of the Kondratiev Cycle

Thursday, April 17th, 2014

The Future Center Smart Systems will be launched, 23-4-2014 in the Hague.

To prepare for the interactive part of the meeting this document has been written to provide some Food for Thought.

What is a Future Center?

A Future Center is a place to connect and innovate. We want to create an environment that facilitates interaction and stimulates collaborative action. We want to support cross-innovation and make it possible to make new combinations. Last but not least we want you to challenge Science to produce valuable insights at the right time and the right place.

A Future Center is a Smart System. At this moment it is an interaction system that helps Humans to innovate. In the Future we wil automate the Future Center and automate the innovation-process itself.

What is a Smart System?

A Smart System looks like a human being. It is equipped with a Sensory-Motor-System, a Mind, Imagination and Emotions.

Smart Systems senses the outside (and his inside) world with much more sensors-types than the five sensors of his human look-a-like.

A Smart System is able to react very fast with its predefined processes on a event that is detected by its sensors.

A Smart System is an adaptable system. It is able to analyze and improve its behavior, communicate with a human being and other Smart Systems in an understandable way.

Smart Systems are there to compensate the human biases. Smart Systems are able to transform and optimize everything that contains some kind of structure.

Smart Systems  can optimize software, data and content using software/data/text-mining, analyze patterns, predict the short and sometimes the long term.

Smart Systems are perfectly suited to provide the knowledge needed and answer the questions humans ask. They are able to train humans in an almost real situation using simulators.

Smart Systems can be fun to play with.

About Cycles

In 1931 the US Department of Commerce assigned Edward Dewey the task of discovering the cause and underlying dynamics of the Great Depression. Dewey created a special institute called the Foundation for the Study of Cycles that is still in existence.

The most interesting observation of Dewey is that Cycles restore themselves all the time and are connected by a Harmonic (“Musical”) Pattern. Dewey discovered that we cannot control the Cycles.  Ups and downs are a fact of life.

The most researched Cycle in history by far is the Kondratiev-Cycle named after the Soviet economist Nikolai Kondratiev. The Kondratiev Cycle has a periodicity of 52 years.

The Kondratiev arises from the combination of basic innovations that launch technological revolutions that in turn create leading industrial or commercial sectors.

In the year 2000 the Kondratiev was at his top and is now in a decline that will take 26 years.

Currently we are in  the Kondratiev Spring Phase. It is the time of what Schumpeter, a big fan of Kondratiev, called Creative Destruction.

The old structures are dying and the new structures that will start the new upward wave are created.  It is a time of tremendous disruptions.

About the Software Factory

The last wave that started around 1950 was dominated by the rise of the centralized computer.

This computer was based on the factory-model of Henry Ford and Frederick Winslow Taylor of the previous wave.

Between 1950-2000 isolated creative programmers united in big software factories that are controlled by unified standardized methods and processes. Between 1950-2000 the programmers automated their own processes.

The methods are now transformed into standardized (BPML-)process-models that are abstracted into standardized (VDML-) business models that are filled with Industry-Models. An example is the ARTS-model that covers Retail.

Creative programmers are now replaced by creative business-modelers.

About the Next Wave, The Network of the Human Mind

On Christmas 1990 Tim Berners-Lee working at CERN published the first version of The World Wide Web. He launched the theme for the next wave, The Network.

From 1950 until 2000 the causal linear manual processes were automated but now the next level, the network of the human mind is at stake.

At the end of this wave around 2040 or much earlier as some people predict, the machines will imitate and surpass the human because they will unite in a global brain that can be connected to our Brains if we want that to happen.

At this moment we are creating the memory-banks of the Global Brain by producing billions of connected parts that contain complete human life’s, theories, music, movies, measurements and much more that we are now unable to imagine.

A Short Scenario for the Next Forty Years

It is clear that the Business-Domain-Models will speed up the process of value-chain-integration and value-chain-reversal.

This means that the customer will be in control of the value-chain en there will be direct contact between customer and producer. Value-chain-integration will in the end remove all the intermediaries in the value chain.

Value chains will finally converge into one standardized value chain. Best-practices of separate value-chains will become leaders in the new value-chain. Cross-innovation, combining the best of all worlds, is the way to move on.

To give customers control of the value-chain producers have to simplify their products and make it possible for the customers to create their own version of the product they want.

Products have to become configurations of simple building blocks that can be split into variable parts and infrastructure.  Product-configurators will connect to other configurators. This makes it possible to create completely new combinations.

In the next step the data that is produced by the systems will be analyzed and processes will not be controlled by human made models but by models that are created by statistical pattern recognition tools. The systems will understand humans and predict human behavior and adapt themselves to the human needs.

In the last stage the software will produce an image that reduces the complexity of its whole. It will create a virtual human world that gives us the illusion that we are still in control.

At that time most people will play and not work.


The most important question you have to ask yourself is if your company is part of the “old world” that will finally be destructed by creativity or is already part of the new wave.

The big problem is change management,  how to move from the current state to a for most companies and institutions unknown future. Companies, Institutions and People have to transform their collaboration patterns,  their software, their data and their expertise.

The change process is accelerating. Almost all companies and institutions (and governments) are stuck in their installed base of software and their hierarchical organization structure that is not created to respond fast to the challenges that come from the outside word.


About Smart Systems

Launch Future Center Smart Systems

Thursday, February 27th, 2014

Wednesday the 23th of April 2014 13:00 – 17:00 we want to launch the Future Center Smart Systems.

The meeting will take place in the Living Lab of the The Hague Centre for Innovation, 2nd floor Campus Den Haag, Schouwburgstraat 2, 2511 VA Den Haag.

The Future Center is an initiative of LIACS, Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science and Constable Research BV.

A Future Center is a place of dialogue and innovation.

Scientific research needs complicated real-life problems to solve to improve their theories. R&D wants to use proven solutions to improve or innovate their products or services.

R&D and Science can easily work together if the long-term strategy of Science matches with the short-term needs of Industry and Government. That is why we need to have a permanent dialogue.

We want to start a dialogue about Smart Systems between Scientific Research and the R&D of big and small companies and government agencies.

Smart Systems are and will be everywhere. Smart Systems control the car you (still) drive and the planes you fly. Smart Systems trade on the stock market, diagnose your illness and design sustainable buildings.

Smart Systems will manage courts & lawyers, cities, logistics and food safety. Smart Systems will entertain you and will stimulate your imagination. Smart Systems will even help you to innovate.

They are a combination of Analytics (Big Data), Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, Process/Case-Managers, Robots, Sensors (The Internet of Things), Simulators, Games, Intelligent User-Interaction (Augmented & Virtual Reality) and Social Networks.

The Smart Systems Future Center aims to help you find out what is happening with new technologies and its applications, what is already possible and what will be possible in the future.

We also want to discuss the big impact Smart Systems will have on our society. Many experts believe Smart Systems will lead to a huge increase of unemployment not only on the level of the not educated people but also on the level of the highly educated.

Others believe that the Smart Systems (“the machines, the robots”) will take over the World. They believe that this moment called the Singularity is near.  It is certain that Smart Systems will disrupt almost every company in the world. 

To prepare you for the future we want to connect people, companies and government agencies. We want to participate in projects and start the development of new research, new services or companies. We can also help with the funding of these projects.

In the first meeting representatives of other Future Centers in the Netherlands (ABN AMRO, Tax Office, Ministry of Infrastucture) will share their experiences, we want to tell you about the state of the art in Big Data and have an interactive discussion about our future plans and priorities and how you want to be part of this dialogue.

If you are interested to come to the meeting or want to be informed by email about what we are doing please send an email to If you know people who could be interested to join our Future Center please forward this link to them.

About Autarky

Thursday, October 11th, 2012

The amount of local cooperative energy-companies in the Netherlands (in 2012) is increasing. It all has to do with the decrease of the price of solar-sells but there is more at stake.

Local energy-companies are part of a movement aimed at Autarky. Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient.

The word Autarky comes from Greek αὐτάρκεια (autárkeia), itself from αὐτός (autós) = self and ἀρκέω (arkéo) which in its passive form means be satisfied, content or “Out of my own Power“.

Fractal Human Distribution Network

Fractal Human Energy Distribution Network

The need to become self-sufficient has certainly to do with the current economic-, ecological- and energy crisis. People are afraid that the supply of vital energy and food will suddenly stop or become priceless. This is not the only reason.

Some people think we are wasting our money, food and energy by producing nondurable throw-away goods in which the packaging is sometimes more important than the content. They want to create durable products and services. This is not the only reason.

Some people don’t trust the suppliers of their food and energy, their politicians and/or the caretakers of their savings, the banks, anymore. They believe that their food is intentionally manipulated, their savings are wasted, their country is sold out to the rich and their environment is polluted for just one simple reason, Greed, the opposite of “Being Satisfied”.

The people of the autarkic movement want to recreate the necessary functions (bank, energy, food, work, healthcare, government) themselves in a cooperative way in their own living context.

Atmospheric Energy Diagram

Atmospheric Energy Diagram

The local cooperatives  are now joining on a higher (mostly country) level and are  in need of a shared (real-time)infrastructure. The current infrastructure does not support flows that move between many participants (so called peer-to-peer-networks).

The current system is a Hierarchic Top Down System containing Huge Highways that are connected to Big Production-facilities. This makes it impossible to consolidate, share and distribute resources peer-to-peer on a local level.

The Electric Highway

The Top Down System has created Global Markets where the local production is sold  to the highest bidder.

The Global Markets are the playing field for advanced speculators that make a lot of money. After the deal is made the local production is transported to a far away destination. That is the reason why the Top Down Systems are integrated in world-wide Logistic Systems.

If we want to coordinate all the local initiatives we need advanced systems that Up- and download, control, predict, connect, share, balance and distribute vital local resources on the short and long term.

The Panarchy Cycle of an Ecology

The Panarchy Cycle of an Ecology

Examples of these systems can be found in “crowd funding“, “virtual power plants”  and “treasury management” (balancing many small amounts of Money at the short and long term).

In Nature we find comparable (Fractal) Distribution-Systems in the Lungs, the Arteries, Riverdelta, the Weather Cycle and Ecologies.

All of these fysical Flow Systems, that map 1 Resource-> on Many Resources or Many Resources->on 1 Resource,  are based on the third Law of Thermodynamics called Constructal Law.

Virtual Power Plant

Virtual Power Plant

In the philosophy of the Stoics and Cynics of Ancient Greece the perfect human was not only arete (“all-around excellent”) but also independent of every need. Arete was associated with a full life as a citizen of a city.

Later Spinoza (“On Human Freedom“), Rousseau and David Thoureau (Walden) have developed their own autarkic philosophy.

Autarky was the ideal of a complete man who needed no one and no organization. This ideal can also be found in Zen Buddhism, Taoist practise, Early Christians (Nazarites), the Catholic Order of the Franciscans and the Protestant Quakers.

In reality it is almost impossible to be completely self-sufficient as a lonely human being. We need others when we are young, sick and old and we need others because we are specialized (“Talented”). Autarky is a possible aim for a small community.

Resource Balancing in Nature (Lungs, RiverDelta)

Resource Balancing in Nature (Lungs, RiverDelta)

The religious, cultural and political movements at the left and the right aimed at living the “good life” (“Living Slow“) are converging in  the movement of the Cultural Creatives. The Cultural Creatives are the new Elite that is moving to the AND-state (Left AND Right).

They don’t believe in the old Competitive Ideologies (Socialist, Capitalist, Religious, Liberal, Nationalist, Conservative, Globalist, etc..) but want  to focus on the Shared Collaborative Values between all Humans. We all need Love, Food and Shelter.

The Stoic Zeno shows the Doors to Truth and False

The Stoic Zeno shows the Doors to Truth and False

Autarky has always been a major political aim of countries. Autarky is about the possibility to control your own future and to become independent of other powers that could use your dependency to tell you what to do to get what you desperately want.

At this moment the shortage of fossil fuels, especially oil and gaz, is used to influence the policy of other countries and is the cause of local conflicts in the Middle East.

China is buying all kinds of vital materials to make sure their economy will not become dependent on others. If they will succeed and nobody doubts about that, they will become the economic controlling power of the world.

Reaching a state of local autarky, being satisfied with what your environment provides you, has become the aim of the wordwide sustainability movement.

Total autarky is possible when you want to live as a stoic or a survivalist. Most people accept a more simple living, move off-the-grid and build autonomous buildings that make use of  renewable energy.

Allotment Garden

Allotment Garden

Others start to farm in their own backyard, join an allotment garden or move back-to-the-land and practice sustainable agriculture.  To handle their surpluses and shortages independent  local markets are created that make use of  alternative currencies.

A strive for (regional) Autarky pushes the need to innovate to a higher level because not all regions contain the right materials, knowledge or experience to realize everything everybody needs. To become fully Autarkic the Production and Consumption Systems in the Region have to be based on simple concepts and parts that are available everywhere. Simple concepts are concepts that are easely copied.

The only way to combine Simple and Complex concepts is to use the Concept of Self-Reference (Fractals). The only way to make use of parts that are available everywhere is to make use of the Simple Building Blocks of Nature. A good example is the use of algea in food processing.

The concept of Autonomy not only plays an important role on the many levels of human (personal, organization, country) and animal society (Competitive vs Collaborative (Ants)). It is also a major subject in the research of (Second-OrderCybernetics (Control Theory).

Self Reproducing Systems

Self Reproducing Fractal Systems

Second Order Cybernetics is concerned with the Control of the System of Systems (the Meta-System). Hierarchy is not the solution to this problem because it leads to the logical problem of Infinite Regress (“Turtles on turtles on … all the way down”).

The Meta-System is controlling, reproducing and balancing itself by a Fractal Feedback-Cycle that moves Backwards (Consumption) and Forwards (Production).

The concept of Self-Reproduction is called Autopoiesis or Autocatalysis. The Design Philosophy of Cradle to Cradle is a good example of Autopoiesis.

A System is an Autarky if all its Levels are capable of Self-Reproduction.

If a human wants to become self-sufficient he has to accept and develop his own talent and find complementary people so he is able to create a Self-Reproducing Unit.

The smallest Self-Reproducing Unit in Human Society is the Family living in one House. This House has to produce more than enough Energy and the Garden has to produce more than enough food to support the Family.

Garden City (Culemborg, the Netherlands)

Garden City (Culemborg, the Netherlands)

If we cluster all these Self-Reproducing Families/Houses & Gardens in a small City the chances are high that the combined talents of the families will be able to supply every profession needed if the people of the city want to Live a Simple Life.

It is also possible that the surplusses and shortages of the families can be compensated by creating a Market on the level of the small City or one level higher, the Region.

An Autarkic Movement becomes an Aggressive Competitive Nationalistic Movement when the Citizens of the Country feel that their Country is plundered by outsiders and their Leaders promise to get it all back by expanding the Space to Live (“Lebensraum“) to facilitate everything that is needed.

This happened when Germany was preparing for War after the enormous reparation payments of 132 billion gold marks to the Winners of World War I.

The Autarkic Movement could also become a Peaceful Cooperative Social Movement like the Movement of Gandhi in India when the people accept the Good Life they already live and want to share the surpluses with others who are in a worse state.


Dutch Report about Local Energy Companies (in Dutch)

About the house that produces his own energy (Passive House)

The Complete Book of Self Sufficiency

About Close-Loops Systems

About Smart Grids

About Anti-Fragility

About Fractal Distribution Systems

Jerry Rifkin: About the Distributed Economy

The John Seymour School for Self Sufficiency

About Entrainment

About the EU Policy of Smart Specialization of Regions

About Darwin and Collaboration 

About Artificial Life

About Smart Technology

About the Thermodynamics of Living Systems

About Worldviews (How to find Complementary People)

A City is an Organism

About the Viable Systems Model of Stafford Beer

About Garden City

Gandhi’s view on Capitalism

The Autarkic Dreams of Germany


Over de Paradoxen van het Leven (in Dutch)

Tuesday, August 14th, 2012


Op  heb ik een verhaal verteld over Path of Change in het Dialoques House van ABN AMRO in Amsterdam ZO.

Hierbij de plaatjes van de presentatie. Als er vragen zijn stel ze gerust via email ( ).

Paths of Change gaat over veranderen en is ontwikkeld door Will McWhinney.

Recent is er een boek “Faciliteren als tweede beroep” verschenen van Jan Lelie dat een eigen interpretatie van Paths of Change bevat. Mensen die meer over Paths of Change willen weten wordt aangeraden in ieder geval dit boek te lezen.

Het Egyptische Spel Mehen

Jan Lelie heeft Paths of Change (POC) toegepast op Faciliteren terwijl ik het vooral heb gebruikt bij het Ontwerpen van Systemen.

POC kan op alle terreinen worden toegepast die je maar kunt bedenken omdat het een Meta-Praxis is, een Theorie over de Praktijk van het Veranderen.

POC is in 1997 door Jan Lelie geintroduceerd door het delen van het boek Paths of Change. Ik was zo onder de indruk van dit boek dat ik onmiddellijk op bezoek ben gegaan bij Will McWhinney. Tot zijn dood zijn we (met vele anderen) bezig geweest om een verbetering van het boek te schrijven met als werktitel Grammars of Engagement (GoE). Het boek is helaas nooit gepubliceerd. GoE gaat over synchronisatie.


POC gaat er vanuit dat mensen een eigen onafhankelijke perspectief op de wereld hebben en dat het mogelijk is om die verschillende kijken te classificeren met behulp van vier zogenaamde wereldbeelden (“Worldview”). Veranderingen gaan altijd samen met veranderingen van wereldbeeld.

De oneindige varieteit aan menselijke kijken kan worden afgeleid door het toepassen van de wereldbeelden op zichzelf. Ieder mens leeft in zijn eigen universum maar er bestaat een fractaal patroon waardoor ze elkaar kunnen begrijpen.

Het patroon kan worden gevonden  door de regelmaat in de regelmaat (in de regelmaat…) te onderzoeken. Wat dan blijkt is dat die regelmaat een zelf-referentie is. Hetzelfde patroon blijft zich herhalen.

Veranderingen zijn Cyclisch en Fractaal. Dezelfde veranderingen komen altijd weer terug op iedere Schaal die er bestaat. Ze springen in de tijd van Schaal (bijv. Mens) naar Schaal (Organisatie) en zelfs de Schaalsprongen zijn weer onderdeel van een Cyclus.

Het is zoals de Sufi’s zeggen: Alles draait om Alles.

Alles draait om Alles

Alles draait om Alles


Hierdoor is Alles uiteindelijk in zichzelf gesloten en roteert rondom het centrum van het centrum (van het centrum…..), de Leegte.

De “mystieke” leegte heeft exact dezelfde eigenschappen als de wiskundige leegte die de lege verzameling wordt genoemd. Dat is niet zo raar als het klinkt als je beseft dat wat de Christenen in het Evangelie van Johannes de Logos noemen (“In den beginne was het Woord (Logos)”) dezelfde principes vertegenwoordigd als wat wij nu de Logica noemen.

De lege verzameling die de Leegte wordt genoemd staat voor alles wat nu nog onmogelijk is. In China wordt ze de Tao genoemd.

Alles is niet-Niets

Alles is niet Niets

De schepping, Alles wat  Is, is de ont-kenning van de Leegte. Die negatie ging gepaard met een enorme explosie in de vorm van een Dirac Delta-puls waardoor het Alles tot op heden permanent aan het expanderen is volgens de regel Space/Time, waarbij de tijd de inverse is van de ruimte. Alles spiraleert rondom het onmogelijke, het Niets. Als we alle schillen van de ui hebben afgenomen blijft er niets over.

Nothing is an opportunity to imagine something. Absolute nothing is the most powerful opportunity of all to imagine anything at all. Because there is really absolutely nothing, the contrast with even a flickering thought of something is enough to make that something seem real! (Law of Forms, Spencer Brown).

The Spiraling Spiral in Chartres Cathedral

De Spiralerende Spiraal in de Kathedraal van Chartres

Het betekent ook dat er altijd sprake is van een paradox, een onlogische situatie, die we steeds maar weer proberen op te lossen maar in zijn wezen onoplosbaar is.

Will McWhinney’s meest wijze woorden zijn dan ook “Our task is not to resolve the paradoxes, but to manage them”. Het heeft geen zin om de uiteindelijke logica achter de werkelijkheid te zoeken want die bestaat niet.

Decentralisatie roept Centralisatie op en een streven naar Menselijkheid tendeert uiteindelijk in On-Menselijkheid. De enige manier is om van alles het midden te vinden en van daar uit te gaan balanceren net als een koordanser. Vandaar de andere favoriete uitspraak van Will “There is only the Dance” (van Shiva).


Veranderingen lopen vast als het pad van de cyclus tegen het pad van een andere cyclus opbotst. Die botsing kan worden vermeden of het conflict kan worden opgelost door een Derde Wereldbeeld te introduceren (een By-Pass) of door een extra dimensie (een “bewustzijn of observator”) te introduceren waardoor ze boven (of onder) elkaar kunnen bewegen.

De vier wereldbeelden zijn inzichtelijk gemaakt in het Book of Kells


De wereldbeelden worden door Will McWhinney Unity, Sensory, Social en Mythic genoemd en zijn te vergelijken met de vier Archetypen van Jung die je kunt terugvinden in de persoonlijkheidstest MBTI. In deze test worden ze T(hinking, Unity), S(ensing, Sensory), F(eeling, Social) en I(ntuiting, Mythic) genoemd.

In MBTI worden er naast de 2-combinaties van STN & F ook nog Introvert & Extravert (I/E) en Perceiving/Judging (P/J) onderscheiden.

Introvert & Extravert slaan in het model van Will op de draairichting van de combinatie. Introvert is Naar-Binnen-Gericht (Van Sensory -> Unity -> Mythic -> Social -> Sensory) en Extravert is Naar-Buiten-Gericht (Sensory->Social->Mythic->Unity->Sensory).

P betekent Boven-het-Model (= de Observator/Bewustzijn/Abstractie/Monitor) en J is In-het-Model. Dit betekent dat er eigenlijk nog een Vijfde Wereldbeeld is maar het beeld bestaat buiten het 2-D-vlak van de vier anderen in de 3De dimensie.

Als je het projecteert in het 2D-vlak komt het in het midden uit op het Kruis-punt van de twee lijnen die de vier verbindt. In die zin staat het Kruis voor Centrum, Balans, Evenwicht en Bewustzijn.

Het grote verschil met de andere beelden is dat het net als het Oog van de Storm stil staat terwijl de rest van de paden ronddraaien. Mensen die problemen hebben met dit Wereldbeeld zijn onevenwichtig.

De Vijf Organen van de Acupunctuur passen perfect op de Vier Wereldbeelden. Het vijfde orgaan staat voor de relatie Geheel/Deel (Earth).


De wereldbeelden zijn ook te verbinden met Het Denken in Modellen (Unity, Waar-maken), het Sensory-Motor Systeem (Handelen en Waar-nemen, Sensory), de Emoties (Social, Waar-deren) en de Verbeelding (Mythic, Waar-om?).

Daarnaast kun je de wereldbeelden ook afbeelden naar IT-technologie (Smart Computing). In dat geval heeft Sensory te maken met Sensors & Proces-management, Unity met Analytics en natuurlijk Big Data, Mythic met User-Inter-Face & Action waarbij nu bijv. Augmented Reality en natuurlijk Games een grote rol spelen en Social met zoals de naam het al zegt Social Networks.

Die Sociale Netwerken kun je weer verdelen in vier onderdelen n.l. de Sociale Sociale netwerken (Friends & Family), de sociale netwerken die de interesse bevredigen (Mytisch Sociale Netwerken), de sociale netwerken waar je ervaring deelt (Sensory Sociale Netwerken, Community of Practice) en de Kenniscentra (Unity Sociale Networken). Hier zie je de “fractale” kracht van POC.

The map is not the territory.

Het is van groot belang om te beseffen dat het Model, de Waar-heid van POC  thuis hoort in de Unity-Mode, POC in de Praktijk van de Sensory-Mode kan worden toegepast, gewaardeerd wordt in de Social-Mode en In-zicht geeft in de Mythic-mode.

De ver-woording (= Unity) van POC die je nu leest is een voorbeeld van de Unity-Mode en niet van de andere Modes. Die andere Modes zul je zelf vorm moeten geven omdat je nu eenmaal een uniek (Mythic), sociaal (Social), bewegend & waarnemend (Sensory) en naar autonomie (Unity) strevend mens bent.

Je bent geen wandelend verhaal maar een fysiek lichaam, je emoties zijn geen woorden maar die voel je en wat je ziet wordt door je verbeelding in beelden omgezet. De buitenwereld is geen plaatje dat je bekijkt maar iets waar je met je fysieke lichaam aan deelneemt.

Vindt je eigen beperkingen:

Door een MBTI test te doen (druk hier) kun je een indruk krijgen van je eigen perceptie van de  wereldbeelden die je hanteert (Let op: “die perceptie kan niet kloppen!”) en wat veel belangrijker is welke wereldbeelden je niet kunt zien (voelen, meten, vaststellen). Die vormen je zwakke plek of bias. Geloof je niet in een Bias dan maak je in ieder geval niet gebruik van het Mythische wereldbeeld omdat je daar “gelooft” (en het dus niet zeker weet). Zeker weten doe je als je Unity bent.

Als je dit verhaal tot op heden niet practisch vindt en voorbeelden mist dan ben je in ieder geval Sensory. Als je plaatjes mist en diagrammen en snel overzicht wilt hebben ben je Mythic en als je graag wilt weten wie POC ook gebruikt en aanbeveelt ben je Social.


Als je de wereld als een geheel wilt zien, ervaren, waarnemen of waarderen zul je andere mensen moeten zoeken die beschikken over een complementaire kijk  en via de gedeelde wereldbeelden moeten gaan communiceren. Hierbij moet je beseffen dat je die anderen volledig zult moeten vertrouwen in de kijk die jij niet hebt.

De meeste mensen kunnen twee wereldbeelden hanteren en eenvoudig tussen die wereldbeelden switchen zonder dat ze dat merken.

Als je maar 1 wereldbeeld aankunt ben je volgens de Psychiatrie geestelijk in de war. Mensen die uitsluitend het Wereldbeeld Unity gebruiken zijn Paranoide en een unieke orientatie op Mythic wordt Histrionisch genoemd. In dat laatste geval speel je permanent een (toneel)spel en geloof je je eigen leugens omdat je volledig in je eigen fantasie leeft.

De trickster gelooft in zijn eigen leugens

De trickster gelooft in zijn eigen leugens

in POC worden de vier wereldbeelden gecombineerd in 4 1-combinaties, 6 2-combinaties, 4 3-combinaties en 3 vier-combinatie die allemaal ook nog een keer met de klok of tegen de klok kunnen ronddraaien. In dit opzicht kunnen ze allemaal worden gezien als een cyclus.

De zes 2-combinaties kun je Ontwerpen/Inspireren, Analyseren/Toetsen, Evalueren/Alloceren, Brainstormen/Faciliteren, Beinvloeden/Meningvormen en Uitvinden/Ondernemen noemen. Will McWhinney noemt ze Spellen (“Games”). De combinatie Social/Sensory noemt hij bijvoorbeeld het Spel van de Markt.

Het bijzondere van POC is dat de vier wereldbeelden met het bewustzijn in het midden afzonderlijk weer kunnen worden verdeeld in vier delen met behulp van dezelfde wereldbeelden waardoor er in eerste instantie 16 mogelijkheden ontstaan waarvan er 12 verschillend zijn en vier weer gelijk zijn aan de oorspronkelijke wereldbeelden. UnityXUnity is nu eenmaal gelijk aan Unity.


Het toepassen van POC op zichzelf laat zien dat POC fractaal (zelf-referend) is. De zelf-referentie kan eindeloos worden voortgezet met als enige kanttekening dat het bepaald ogenblik erg moeilijk wordt om de combinaties te benoemen.

De expansie naar 2**8=64 is een heel bijzondere en wordt toegepast in de I Tjing. Daarnaast zie je hem ook terug in spellen zoals het Schaakspel.

Na de 64 herhaalt alles zich en die herhaling kun je zien in het getal 8 dat een eigenlijk een Moebius-ring voorstelt. 8 = 2×4 en door het koppelen van twee ronddraaiende 4-hoeken op 1 punt (het Hart) komen we op de bekende 3-1-3 (=7) structuur die zich toont in de Zeven Chakra’s.

De Moebius Ring, het getal 8, toont zich in de Panarchy Theorie.

In wiskundig oogpunt heeft POC erg veel verband met de z.g. Driehoek van Pascal, die heel lang geleden de berg Meru werd genoemd.

De basis-fractal van POC is niet 2×2 maar tweevoudig of beter gezegd drie-voudig omdat het onmogelijk is om een verdeling te maken zonder de deling (“het onderscheid”) zelf ook mee te nemen ook al is het eerste onderscheid  ”geen onderscheid”.


De eerste Trinity  (Yin/Yang + Midden) kan op vele manieren worden weergegeven. Ik prefereer de Uitgaande (“Expansie”, Extravert) en de Ingaande (“compressie”, Introvert) Beweging die in combinatie het “ademen” van de werkelijkheid simuleert. De derde (“het Midden”, Rust, de Leegte) is het moment waarop de uitgaande beweging weer omdraait in een ingaande beweging.

In zijn wezen is ieder mens een unieke fractale expansie van Path of Change dus van het Ademende Heelal.

Er zijn aanwijzingen dat we op dit moment in de 42e expansie zitten. De expansies vinden ook weer volgens een regelmaat plaats. Die regelmaat wordt  beschreven door de Bronze Mean.

De Bronze Mean komt voort uit een abstractie van de Gulden Snede ook wel de reeks van Fibonacci genoemd. Het bijzondere is dat de generator van de Bronze Mean wordt gestuurd door de Trinity.

De berg Meru


Volgens Will McWhinney spelen mensen met elkaar een spel waarbij ze soms gevangen zitten in een gezamenlijke cyclus zoals de “drama triangle“.

Het meest intigrerende spel is een combinatie van Mythic & Social (“Het waarderen van ideeen”) (Brainstorm, Explosie), (“het collectieve onderbewustzijn activeren”) (Scheppen, Implosie)). Dit is het spel dat spellen maakt, het spel dat kinderen spelen, het spel van de magier en de  trickster en het oneindige spel (“the infinite game“) omdat het niet wordt gespeeld om te winnen maar omdat het voortgaan van het spelen op zich het mooiste is wat de mens, als mede-schepper kan doen.

Een hele bekende 2-cyclus is de wetenschapscyclus waarbij theorien (Unity) worden getoetst aan de werkelijkheid (Sensory) en andersom.

Door de enorme waarde (= Social) die er in onze tijd aan wetenschap (=objectief) wordt toegekend lopen we het risico dat de weg terug (het aanpassen van de theorie aan de praktijk) niet plaatsvindt waardoor onze werkelijkheid een theoretische constructie wordt (een norm, regel) waar we ons aan te houden hebben.

Een veranderingspad werkt als er geen sprake is van een conflict van de wereldbeelden. Een conflict ontstaat als twee paden verschillende kanten oplopen en daardoor botsen.

Een voorbeeld is het boven beschreven conflict tussen praktijk en theorie maar het kan nog vervelender worden als de andere wereldbeelden (Social = Emoties en Mythic = Verbeelding) ook worden gedomineerd door het Unity-wereldbeeld.

Hierdoor worden Emoties vervormd tot Emotionele Intelligentie en wordt de Verbeelding gediskwalificeerd als een Illusie of Fantasie.


In de presentatie toon ik een klein aantal van de enorme hoeveelheid toepassingen van POC.


Het eerste deel, de Logica van de Schepping, laat zien dat de vier wereldbeelden eigenlijk bestaan uit een combinatie van slechts twee beelden (Expansie & Compressie (niet-Expansie)) die de lege verzameling gemeen hebben.

Het ene beeld is een negatie (ont-kenning) van het andere beeld. Ze worden in de praktijk aangeduid met bijv. Yang en Yin, mannelijk en niet-mannelijk (=vrouwelijk), orde en niet-orde (chaos), licht en niet-licht (donker), koud en niet-koud (warm) etc etc.

De twee andere wereldbeelden zijn combinaties van de Yin en de Yang via EN (Mythic, Yin EN Yang) en OF (Social, Yin OF Yang).



De vier kijken op de wereld worden in het Boeddhisme het Tetralemma genoemd.

Het Tetralemma wordt gebruikt om de “vreemde” wereld van de Quantum-mechanica te verklaren.

Met behulp van  de twee-heid “Naar buiten gaan” (Extravert, Expansie) en “Naar binnen gaan” (Introvert, Compressie) en de logische operatoren EN en OF kun je eindeloos veel 2-combinaties maken waarvan het aantal een macht van twee is.

Een mooi voorbeeld van een betekenisvolle binaire combinatiereeks is de I Tjing die 64 (2**8) combinatie bevat. Het getal 64 is een heel bijzonder getal omdat na de 64 de cyclus zich weer herhaalt. Het symbool van het getal 8 is niet voor niets de Moebius Ring.

De Cyclus van 2-machten ook wel de Bron genoemd.

In de I Tjing zijn alle combinaties voorzien van een symbool en een kort verhaaltje dat de betekenis van dit symbool uitlegt. Duidelijk zal zijn dat men hierbij gebruik heeft gemaakt van de uitingen van het combinatie-spel in de Natuur en de Mens.

In het Mythic wereldbeeld dat wordt verbonden met Ideeen, Scheppen en het Verbeelden worden twee tegenstellingen (Appel en Niet-Appel, Goed en niet-Goed = Kwaad)  opgeheven door naar een hoger niveau van abstractie (Fruit, Ethiek) te springen. Die fusie geeft erg veel energie net als de combinatie van materie en anti-materie.

Mensen met een Social Wereldbeeld moeten steeds een keuze maken tussen de twee tegenstellingen omdat ze anderen te-vreden willen houden. Ze durven het conflict niet aan dat voortvloeit uit de contraverse tussen de twee tegendelen (bv Orde & Chaos).

Een waarde is een karakteristieke manier waarop mensen een keuze maken. Omdat POC fractaal (zelf-refererend) is bestaan er weer vier verschillende manieren om een keuze te maken, waarbij de vierde manier een combinatie van hetzelfde (hier Social/Social) is.  In dat laatste geval kiezen mensen door weer nieuwe keuzes te gaan formuleren.

Doordat mensen een keuze maken (en hun opties niet open houden) wordt de wereld die ze beschouwen steeds kleiner (gefragmenteerd, gespecialiseerd). Als de twee-deling overlapt (wat meestal het geval is) wordt de wereld ook steeds vager en conflicteuzer omdat mensen een claim gaan leggen op elkaars gebied. Ze zijn niet instaat om het conflict op te lossen omdat alles met alles lijkt samen te hangen. Er zijn geen duidelijke grenzen meer.


Het tweede deel gaat over de vier wereldbeelden in samenhang met het weer-systeem. Hier wordt ook de vier-combinatie-cyclus zichtbaar. Hier zie je dat Social en Mythic nodig zijn om de voortgaande expansie en/of  compressie een halt toe te roepen zodat het geheel niet weer opgaat in de Leegte die het Niet-Al is. Hierdoor ontstaat de Levensgolf (de Svara).

gravity waves

gravity waves


Het derde deel “Het Rad van Avontuur” genoemd, behandelt oude vormen van Path of Change (Indianen (Medicine Wheel), China(Sheng-Cyclus, Lo Shu) en het Buddhisme). Die staan allemaal uitgebreid beschreven in dit document.


Deel vier gaat over Interpersonal Theory, waarna wordt getoond dat de twee gekoppelde vier-combinatie-cycli overeenstemmen met het aloude concept van de chakra en dat het symbool van het Hart-Chakra (twee gekoppelde driehoeken) hetzelfde toont.


Het laatste plaatje in dit onderdeel gaat over de Egyptische Godin (= concept) Ma’at, die ook de bestuurder was van de toegang tot het dodenrijk (het pad van reincarnatie, het rad van avontuur). Het Egyptische concept Ma’at laat zien dat je uit het Rad van Avontuur kunt stappen als je de twee driehoeken van de Geest en het Lichaam in evenwicht brengt in het Hart dat dan zo licht weegt als de Veer van Ma’at. Ma’at werd door de Grieken Sophia (Wijsheid) genoemd.


In deel vijf worden een aantal toepassingen van POC getoond in het bedrijfsleven en het laatste deel gaat over de relatie tussen POC en tijd. Dit laatste deel staat ook hier beschreven.

In het deel over het bedrijfsleven toont POC dat de bedrijfskundigen vergeten zijn om het pad rond te laten lopen in een bedrijf waardoor er geen sprake is van feed-back. De beroemde waardeketen van Porter is eigenlijk een waardencyclus en ketenomkering is niets anders dan consumeren en consumeren is niets anders dan de omgekeerde rotatie van produceren.

Produceren is een vorm van Compressie (Versimpelen van de Praktijk) en Consumeren een vorm van Expansie die elkaar eigenlijk zouden moeten opheffen.

In dit laatste geval zijn we vergeten om de rechtsdraaiende cyclus van de productie te koppelen met de linksdraaiende cyclus van de consumptie waardoor het opheffen van de productie door de consumptie niet meer evenwichtig plaatsvindt. Productie en consumptie zijn een prachtig voorbeeld van boven beschreven complementaire wereldbeelden die samen de Leegte vormen.


Over de wiskunde van het bewustzijn

Over de theorie van de Cycli

Over de vier wereldbeelden

Over Logica

About Intelligent Design

Tuesday, April 17th, 2012

Thermodynamics, the Science of Heat, became an important science in the 19th century when physicists started to improve the Steam-Machine. This blog is about a recently discovered law of Thermodynamics called the Constructal Law.

The Constructal Law describes How Intelligent Systems emerge out of the Laws of Thermodynamics.

Heat is Random Motion

According to Thermodynamics the evolution of the universe has been characterized by an on-going transformation from a simple, restricted, highly condensed, homogeneous state (the Big Bang) to an increasingly complex, widely dispersed, dynamic, multipotent, granular diversity.

Energy always moves from High to Low Temperature. This is the main reason why most of the energy of Earth comes from our Sun.

With help of the Electro-Magnetic radiation of the Sun we call Light, plants, algae and bacteria transform simple molecules into complex organic structures (Biomass = Potential Chemical Energy) and store the energy of the Sun. Bacteria and Fungi brake up these structures, produce heat, reduce the complexity, and close the Cycle.

The Input of the Heat of the Sun has to be compensated by a comparable Output of Radiation otherwise Earth would be burned instantly. The difference between the Input and Output of Energy is transformed into Movements on Earth.

The Earth’s climate is a huge flow system. It circulates air and water from the tropics to the poles and back. These flows develop as air and water move from hot to cold regions, a result of variation in the heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun.

The Earth is not only heated by the Sun. The hot kernel of the Earth is surrounded by a small crust. At certain places on Earth and the Sea the rotating pool of the magma-ocean produces a lot of energy.

The Earth with its solar heat input, heat rejection, and wheels of atmospheric and oceanic circulation, is a heat engine without shaft. Its maximized mechanical power cannot be delivered, but is instead destined to dissipate through air and water friction and other forms of heat loss. It produces maximum power, which it then dissipates at a maximum rate.

The earth is wasting a lot of energy because the transmission of  most of its energy is not contained in a Tube-like-system.

The system maximizes the sum of the work done driving the planetary circulation, and the heat rejected back to space at the cold end of the heat engine.

When the speed of the planetary circulation is low, so are the turbulent losses. As speed increases, up to a certain point the sum of work done (circulation speed) and heat rejected also increasing until the turbulence starts to interfere with the circulation and  actually decrease the total of work done and heat rejected. That is the point, “the edge of turbulence”,  at which the system will naturally run.

Every flow system tries to find the perfect balance between movement and friction.

The interesting point is that friction is movement in opposition to itself.

Clouds on the Edge of Turbulence

The biomass on Earth is direct or later (Oil, Gaz, Coal) consumed by all kinds of organisms. In Food-Webs Organisms are consumed by other organisms.

We, the Humans, describe the interaction of the organisms in the Food-Webs as a Struggle for Live, a Survival of the Fittest, but the flow of energy in the food webs could also be seen as an adaptive chain of chemical reactions that are performed in self-moving, self-reproducing chemical factories.

Energy is Potential Movement. The potential energy stored in the biomass on Earth is transformed into circular movement (kinetic energy). During this transformation Heat is produced. Heat is the waste produced by a restrained non-effective movement.

The energy of the Sun produces all kinds of movements on Earth. Examples are river-delta’s, our respiratory system and the weather-system.

Flow Systems that move from one  to many always look like a leaf or a tree

Flow Systems that move from One to Many always look like a Leaf or a Tree. Left a River Delta is shown. Right a picture of the Lungs is displayed.

According to Constructal Theory the generation of design (configuration, patterns, geometry, shape, structure, rhythm) in nature is a physical phenomenon that unites all animate and inanimate systems. Design in Nature always shows itself as systems that flow and improve themselves.  Systems improve themselves because the movement from chaos to order takes many discrete steps.

Biological organisms are flow systems. River basins are flow systems. A Tree is a flow system. The Traffic System is a flow system. The City of Paris is a flow system. The Financial Market is a flow system. The Internet is a flow system. A Proces-Manager is a flow system.

Flow Systems

All these flow systems must be structured (architecturally designed) in such a way that the currents that flow (Life Energy, Water, Air, Electricity, Gaz, People, Cars, Trains, Airplanes, Content, Money) increasingly get to where they need to go. This gives shape and structure to everything that evolves over time.

Flow Systems always remove the Resistance to the Flow themselves.

Constructal Law is formulated as follows: “For a finite-size system to persist in time (to live), it must evolve in such a way that it provides easier access to the imposed currents that flow through it.”.

Nature always provides Resistance to Change (Heat, Erosion, Friction) and this resistance is provided by the Systems of the Past. The current Order resists the potential Chaos of Free Moving Energy.

The Paths of Change of our Universe always move in the same way. The pattern looks like a Moebius Ring, the number 8, because this is the only way to cope with the polarity of the movements. In a Moebius Ring two Opposite Cyclic Movements are perfectly United.

A Moebius Ring is a 2D-structure that operates in 3D because it needs a Twist to operate.

According to Constructal Theory the Energy of the Sun creates two types of Systems called Engines and Brakes.

Engines are the most effective and efficient states in the evolution of our Universe. They have found the best way to cope with the resistance that is provided by the Brakes. Brakes are the old systems like trees, forests and natural or constructed dams that slow down the movement so the potential energy can be stored.

If the Energy of the Sun is not stored,  the Self-Reproducing Systems are unable to evolve to a higher level of organization.  If every Resistance would be gone the Flow-Systems would Flow in a Radial Pattern to every Direction possible.

If we remove the Natural Brakes (Forests, River-delta’s) the Expansive Flow-systems will take over control and the Smart Highly Improbable Next Generation Brake Systems, the Organisms would die.

We, the Humans, are here to Resist the Engines that give the Flow-Systems the opportunity to make Everything the Same. Every Thing has to become the Same because the Universe does not discriminate. Every configuration has the same chance to be alive.

Dependent on the type of flow there are standard solutions to the dualities that are provided by the eternal battle between engine (movement) and brake (not-movement).

Paris is a Flow System

The standard solution can be calculated using the Laws of Thermodynamics. Tree (or Leaf)-shaped fractal systems are for example the best solution for a One-to-Many (or Many-to-One) Flow. The Flow Systems always converge to these Shapes.

Our Earth is rotating, spinning and moving around our moving Sun. The influx of Energy on every area on Earth is changing all the time.

This means that every Flow-System on Earth has to adapt to the short term and long term changing Energy Input of the Sun.

The stability of a Flow-System, the Resistance to Change, is highly dependent on the Resilience of the System.

According to the theory of Panarchy the Resilience of a System is dependent on the Potential and the Connectedness of a System.

In  the Exploitation/Conservation phase of the Adaptive Panarchy-Cycle the Constructal Engines become more efficient (producing more Potential) and Connected. This means that the amount of possible paths in the River-delta of the System is reduced. This amount determinates the resilience of the system.

At the state of maximum production and maximum connection (conservation) the system is spending all its potential at self-reproduction and is highly vulnerable to external disturbances. At a certain moment when a disturbance destroys the majority of the paths the system collapses (release).

Revolt: A small Wildfire can destroy a complete Ecology

The bits and pieces, the components, of the scattered ecology are reassembled sometimes in a different way (reorganization) and the system starts again most of the time on a higher level of organization.

Kleiber's law

Kleiber’s Law is an example of the Constructal Law. It shows the many levels of organization that have occured since the chemical factories of the bacteria started to work together. Kleiber’s Law can be extented to the level of the Community and the City.

The Panarchy Cycle is Self-Similar. It repeats itself on many Scales. The higher the scale the bigger the impact and the slower change takes place.

The Scales are interconnected. A huge disturbance on a lower scale (Revolt) can have an huge impact on a higher scale when both cycles are moving into the Release State.

A Slow moving High Level Cycle can help to restructure a fast moving cycle by providing the template of the way the components were originally assembled (its CommunityDNA) (Remember).

Constructal Law is a Law of Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics has evolved into a Statistical Theory called Statistical Mechanics. To calculate a probability you have to define the Space of all Possibilities of a System, the Phase Space.

When you don’t know what a system will look like it is impossible to calculate the Phase Space. To calculate the possibilities of Constructal Law you have to imagine the possible constructions of Mother Nature.

It is possible to play with Probability Theory without knowing the exact Phase Space. In this case you have to look at the probabilities of the probabilities. These probabilities are described by the Triangle of Pascal. Behind the Triangle of Pascal a new Triangular Structure shows itself. This pattern goes on and on until the primary Triangle of Creation, the Holy Trinity, is reached.

The Trinity is a combination of Desire (Mother, Female, Expansion, FLOW), Control (Father, Male, Compression, BRAKE) and the combination of both Expansion AND Compression also called the Void or the Tao. In Physics the Void is called the Vacuum or the Zero-Point-Field.

The Triangular Pattern behind the Triangle of Pascal

When we have moved back in time and have reached the state of the Trinity we are very close to the Big Bang. The Big Bang is a result of the Union of the Opposites (Yin/Yang, Male/Female, Matter/Anti-Matter, Expansion/Compression) that both came out of the Void.

The Vacuum is the Eternal Flow System of Creation. It contains everything that is possible even the impossible, the Empty Set.

The Tao is like a well: 

used but never used up.

It is like the eternal void:

filled with infinite possibilities.

It is hidden but always present.

I don’t know who gave birth to it.

It is older than God.

(Tao Te Ching 4)

According to Constructal Law every finite-size system must evolve in such a way that it provides easier access to the imposed currents that flow through it.

The Tao is the Channel of the Energy of Life. If Constructal Law is Right we have to give easier access to this Flow. We have to become the River to move to our final destination, the Sea of the Nothing.


A video about Constructal Theory

About the Higgs Field and the Big Bang

Why the Objects in the Universe are of Different Size

About Innovation and Thermodynamics 

About the Big Bang

About Friction

About the Big Freeze

About the Constructal Theory of David Deutsch

The Website about Constructal Theory

An Introduction into Constructal Theory

About Morphology

About Panarchy

About Kleiber’s Law

About Genetic Similarity Theory

Why a City is an Organism

About the Triangle of Pascal and the Holy Trinity

About the Holy Trinity

About Constructal Law and the Trinity

Attraction + Obstacles = Excitement 

About the Law of three & Gurdjieff